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J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res., Volume 16, Issue 4 (July 2021) – 31 articles

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Article
Or-Based Intelligent Decision Support System for E-Commerce
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 1150-1164; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040065 - 26 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 938
Abstract
Aim: This paper aims to analyze, prepare, and review the general guidelines and rules that govern the development of key factors influencing the enhancement of emotionally supportive networks and selection models using fuzzy logic theory. The researchers have identified eight important components [...] Read more.
Aim: This paper aims to analyze, prepare, and review the general guidelines and rules that govern the development of key factors influencing the enhancement of emotionally supportive networks and selection models using fuzzy logic theory. The researchers have identified eight important components of the information society (IS), representing the computerized economy’s growth to explain a realistic framework for medium-term gauges and proposals. Materials and methods: A discrete-nonstop opportunity paradigm portrays the creation of the general framework, in which the mutual effects of each of the components are spoken to models within the state-space. The software’s mechanical quality offers improvement displayed along these lines that may indicate future interest to programing suppliers. The researchers have given supposed to the developments and interests of information technology (IT) professionals in R&D to provide insightful foundations. For example, this study will demonstrate the development of emotionally supportive networks and recommendations of choices for 3D-web-based businesses and their impact on mechanical advancement, examples of use and social behavior. Results: During an IS/IT foreknowledge undertaking completed in Poland in 2019 and sponsored by the Education Research and Development Foundation ERDF, the results were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Machine Learning in Electronic Commerce)
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Article
A New Strategic Marketing Management Model for the Specificities of E-Commerce in the Supply Chain
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 1136-1149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040064 - 25 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1196
Abstract
The study seeks to answer the question of what strategic directions and opportunities we have for business in the midst of the info-communication changes of our time. In this research, we compare the results of non-representative primary research (cluster analysis and discriminant analysis) [...] Read more.
The study seeks to answer the question of what strategic directions and opportunities we have for business in the midst of the info-communication changes of our time. In this research, we compare the results of non-representative primary research (cluster analysis and discriminant analysis) with the factors and latest methods of e-commerce or even mobile commerce and traditional commerce and their main differences. Based on the four clusters examined, we develop a new strategic model for practice with suggestions which can be used by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and which they can incorporate directly into their business models. Starting point of our hypothesis was that in order to develop an effective and delivered communication, a market needs to be targeted and at least four different clusters should be formulated. Full article
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Article
Peer-to-Peer Tourism: Tourists’ Profile Estimation through Artificial Neural Networks
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 1120-1135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040063 - 23 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
Peer-to-peer tourism is one of the great global trends that is transforming the tourism sector, introducing several changes in many aspects of tourism, such as the way of travelling, staying or living the experience in the destination. This research aims to determine the [...] Read more.
Peer-to-peer tourism is one of the great global trends that is transforming the tourism sector, introducing several changes in many aspects of tourism, such as the way of travelling, staying or living the experience in the destination. This research aims to determine the relationship between the sociodemographic characteristics of tourists interested in peer-to-peer accommodation and the importance they give to various motivational factors about this type of tourism in a “cultural-tourism” city. The methodology used in this research is an artificial neural network of the multilayer perceptron type to estimate a sociodemographic profile of the peer-to-peer accommodation tourist user based on predetermined input values consisting of the answers to the Likert-type questions previously carried out using a questionnaire. Thus, the model developed, through a customized set of answers to these questions, allows the presentation of a “composite picture” of a peer-to-peer tourist based on sociodemographic characteristics. This function is especially interesting for adapting the peer-to-peer hosting offer according to the preferences of potential users. Full article
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Article
Decision Factors behind Cisco Networking Hardware Acceptance in Business Environments
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 1097-1119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040062 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 811
Abstract
Networking hardware might be considered a relatively unexposed enabler of the enormous success of the modern digital economy, and information technology of a global reach. The COVID-19 traffic spike across e-commerce portals puts further pressure on computer network component vendors and raises the [...] Read more.
Networking hardware might be considered a relatively unexposed enabler of the enormous success of the modern digital economy, and information technology of a global reach. The COVID-19 traffic spike across e-commerce portals puts further pressure on computer network component vendors and raises the bar regarding both performance and reliability. Therefore, the authors undertake a challenge of identifying factors influencing the level of Cisco switches acceptance among network administrators in business environments. To achieve that, Structural Equation Modelling is introduced. The feedback gathered from 205 study contributors enabled the authors to evaluate the significance of two domain-specific factors—Technological Innovation (TI) and Availability of Professional Training (APT). The APT was confirmed to have a significant impact on networking hardware acceptance. The study contributes to extending the decision-making rationale regarding the procurement of networking switches and shows the added value of technology-oriented professional training for job satisfaction and working efficiency. Full article
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Article
Benefits First: Consumer Trust Repair in Mobile Commerce
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 1079-1096; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040061 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
The purpose of this study is to explore trust repair strategies and the outcomes in mobile (m-)commerce. Consumer trust in m-commerce is a calculus-based form of trust; service failures, “inaction” and “excessive actions” are the typical trust decline situations. Three strategies of the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study is to explore trust repair strategies and the outcomes in mobile (m-)commerce. Consumer trust in m-commerce is a calculus-based form of trust; service failures, “inaction” and “excessive actions” are the typical trust decline situations. Three strategies of the fulfillment of consumers’ psychological contract for compensation, arousal, and regulation are proposed as trust-repaired solutions regarding the abovementioned three situations. The experimental results demonstrate that trust cannot be repaired by a single relational psychological contract strategy and that it can be repaired by both a single transactional and interactive strategy; the interactive strategy is more effective in competence-based decline. Second, in integrity-based decline, both the single and interactive strategy negatively influence trust repair; the relational strategy has the strongest effect. The “boomerang effect” shows that the more m-vendors repair, the more the trust decreases. Third, trust can be repaired, respectively by arousal and regulation strategy regarding corresponding situations of inaction and excessive actions. Finally, the trust repair paradox (TRP) has not been verified in m-commerce. Full article
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Article
Examination of Website Language Strategies Adopted by Five-Star Hotels in China: A Corpus Approach
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 1066-1078; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040060 - 19 Mar 2021
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Hotel websites are vital information channels for potential customers. Hence, their readability and attractiveness play a key role in online marketing for hotels. This study attempts to investigate how hotels use language strategies to better market themselves online. This study first proposes an [...] Read more.
Hotel websites are vital information channels for potential customers. Hence, their readability and attractiveness play a key role in online marketing for hotels. This study attempts to investigate how hotels use language strategies to better market themselves online. This study first proposes an analytical framework on the basis of appraisal theory, which aims to reveal the hidden mechanism by hotels in building interpersonal relationships, and uses such a framework to explore online language strategies used by five-star hotels in China. The general language strategy and the corresponding preference in the use of such a strategy amongst hotels are identified. Theoretical contributions and managerial implications are generated on the basis of the findings and analysis. It is among the early studies to modify appraisal theory to analyze tourism and hospitality text data and to adopt the corpus approach to explore the hidden mechanism of language use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Marketing and the Connected Consumer)
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Article
Mining Open Government Data for Business Intelligence Using Data Visualization: A Two-Industry Case Study
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 1042-1065; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040059 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 841
Abstract
The business intelligence (BI) market has grown at a tremendous rate in the past decade due to technological advancements, big data and the availability of open source content. Despite this growth, the use of open government data (OGD) as a source of information [...] Read more.
The business intelligence (BI) market has grown at a tremendous rate in the past decade due to technological advancements, big data and the availability of open source content. Despite this growth, the use of open government data (OGD) as a source of information is very limited among the private sector due to a lack of knowledge as to its benefits. Scant evidence on the use of OGD by private organizations suggests that it can lead to the creation of innovative ideas as well as assist in making better informed decisions. Given the benefits but lack of use of OGD to generate business intelligence, we extend research in this area by exploring how OGD can be used to generate business intelligence for the identification of market opportunities and strategy formulation; an area of research that is still in its infancy. Using a two-industry case study approach (footwear and lumber), we use latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic modeling to extract emerging topics in these two industries from OGD, and a data visualization tool (pyLDAVis) to visualize the topics in order to interpret and transform the data into business intelligence. Additionally, we perform an environmental scanning of the environment for the two industries to validate the usability of the information obtained. The results provide evidence that OGD can be a valuable source of information for generating business intelligence and demonstrate how topic modeling and visualization tools can assist organizations in extracting and analyzing information for the identification of market opportunities. Full article
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Article
The Relationship between CSR Communication on Social Media, Purchase Intention, and E-WOM in the Banking Sector of an Emerging Economy
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 1025-1041; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040058 - 18 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1623
Abstract
Modern businesses in the present digital age are facing different challenges for survival and growth due to the stiff competitive environment that prevails almost in every sector. Technology, especially digital technology, has changed the way of doing business around the globe. Marketers need [...] Read more.
Modern businesses in the present digital age are facing different challenges for survival and growth due to the stiff competitive environment that prevails almost in every sector. Technology, especially digital technology, has changed the way of doing business around the globe. Marketers need to develop new strategies by incorporating the element of digital technology to overrun their competitors, as conventional competitive strategies will not produce extraordinaryresults. The rise of social media, in this regard, is a game-changer in the context of marketing as it provides a strategic touchpoint to the marketers to involve the customers with a brand. Prior research has largely ignored the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices of a brand and positive customer experiences. Hence the present study aims to test the relationship of customer-related CSR activities on social media on behavioral consequences of customers, such as their purchase likelihood and electronic word of mouth (E-WOM). The data were collected from the banking customers of a developing economy and were analyzed through structural equation modeling in AMOS software. The results revealed that customer-related CSR activitieson social mediainfluence customer behavioral outcomes like E-WOM and purchase intentions. The result also revealed that brand attitude mediates the relationship between customer-related CSR, E-WOM, and purchase intentions. The findings of the present study can help policymakers to understand the importance of CSRpractices from the perspective of marketing, which is largely ignored by contemporary CSR researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The New Era of Digital Marketing)
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Article
Creating Electronic Word of Mouth Credibility through Social Networking Sites and Determining Its Impact on Brand Image and Online Purchase Intentions in India
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 1008-1024; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040057 - 13 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
The aim of this study is to identify the factors affecting the credibility of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) stimulation through Social Networking Sites (SNSs) through an empirical model providing both theoretical understandings and practical implications. The proposed framework explicates the consumer’s use of SNSs [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to identify the factors affecting the credibility of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) stimulation through Social Networking Sites (SNSs) through an empirical model providing both theoretical understandings and practical implications. The proposed framework explicates the consumer’s use of SNSs as a tool for information sharing and its effect on brand image and online purchase intentions. The consumer survey was done through a structured questionnaire developed in accordance with the literature. Data was collected from 256 respondents, using both offline and online modes from 4 different cities of India. Structural Equation Modeling was employed to estimate the proposed model and determine the antecedents of consumer eWOM credibility and in turn its effect on brand image leading to consumer purchase intentions. The results show SNS activities play a significant role in creating eWOM credibility, which leads to shaping the brand image and purchase intentions. The findings would help companies to create a positive brand image to enhance their purchase intentions through eWOM aroused via SNSs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The New Era of Digital Marketing)
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Article
Understanding the Adoption of Incentivized Word-of-Mouth in the Online Environment
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 992-1007; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040056 - 10 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 842
Abstract
Nowadays, word-of-mouth is a very important component of e-commerce activity because consumers are very sensitive to other people’s opinions. Depending on the companies’ politics, these opinions can be incentivized or non-incentivized. One of the major dilemmas consists in establishing which kind of word-of-mouth [...] Read more.
Nowadays, word-of-mouth is a very important component of e-commerce activity because consumers are very sensitive to other people’s opinions. Depending on the companies’ politics, these opinions can be incentivized or non-incentivized. One of the major dilemmas consists in establishing which kind of word-of-mouth has more influence on customers’ perceptions. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationships between perceived argument quality (PAQ) and perceived source expertise (PSE), on the one hand, and electronic word-of-mouth adoption intention on the other hand, for an incentivized message compared to a non-incentivized message. We processed answers from two different random groups by using adapted PAQ and PSE inventories of questions. The constructs, latent variables and items were analyzed in IBM Amos software, and our findings confirm the hypotheses regarding the relationship between the attributes of the message (argument quality and source expertise) and message credibility. Additionally, we found a significant positive relationship between message credibility and electronic word-of-mouth adoption intention. Our research also explores the moderating role of the message type (incentivized vs. non-incentivized) in the relationships above, and we discovered that the message type significantly moderates the relationship between perceived argument quality and credibility, but the type of message does not moderate the relationship between message credibility and eWOM adoption intention. Full article
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Article
Effective Strategies for Contents Recommendation Based on Psychological Ownership of over the Top Services in Cyberspace
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 976-991; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040055 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 595
Abstract
With the advanced development of IT, people are spending an increasing amount of time in the cyberspace and perceive psychological ownership of intangible objects (e.g., e-books, avatars, online movie streaming services), which they come to regard as “theirs”. This study focuses on users’ [...] Read more.
With the advanced development of IT, people are spending an increasing amount of time in the cyberspace and perceive psychological ownership of intangible objects (e.g., e-books, avatars, online movie streaming services), which they come to regard as “theirs”. This study focuses on users’ psychological ownership of OTT (over the top) services, which have recently received much attention, and investigates how service providers can present recommendation information more effectively when recommending content to users. This study, based on psychological ownership theory, specifically attempts to verify which method of recommending information is effective in correlation to the level of psychological ownership that a user feels about an online service. Additionally, this study presents this effect in terms of psychological distance, which we argue is the underlying mechanism of psychological ownership. Watcha, one of South Korea’s OTT services, was employed as the experimental subject in this study, and a scenario-based test was conducted. In conclusion, this study found that for users with high psychological ownership of online services, a recommendation information message based on objective and concrete information about a movie was more effective, whereas for users with low psychological ownership, abstractly expressed messages were more effective. Furthermore, by applying a moderated mediation model, this study confirmed that psychological distance mediated the results stated above. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Circular Business Model for Transparency and Uncertainty Reduction in Supply Chain Management
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 959-975; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040054 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 930
Abstract
Circular Supply Chain Management (CSCM) incorporates the economy concept into supply chain concepts, which gives the supply chain sustainability domain an innovative and convincing viewpoint. The challenging factors in the circular economy are cooperation, trust, and transparency. Therefore, to achieve sustainable results, collaboration, [...] Read more.
Circular Supply Chain Management (CSCM) incorporates the economy concept into supply chain concepts, which gives the supply chain sustainability domain an innovative and convincing viewpoint. The challenging factors in the circular economy are cooperation, trust, and transparency. Therefore, to achieve sustainable results, collaboration, and openness between organizations within networks and value chains are required. This paper explores the sustainability success using the Sustainable Circular Business Model (SCBM) to incorporate the principle at an operational level and suggest a structure for combining Circular Business Model (CBM) and CSCM for sustainable growth. The proposed structure shows how various circular business structures power the global supply chain in multiple loops. The circular business models differ according to the difficulty of the Circular Supply Chain (CSC) and the value proposition. Proposed SCBM shows that circular market and supply chain aid in reaching goals for sustainability has been discussed in this research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data and Machine Learning in Electronic Commerce)
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Article
A Reference Architecture for Blockchain-Based Crowdsourcing Platforms
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 937-958; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040053 - 07 Mar 2021
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
Companies increasingly tender knowledge-intensive tasks using crowdsourcing platforms to gain access to scarce knowledge and skills otherwise out of reach, and in this way, gaining competitive advantage. Despite its potential, existing crowdsourcing platforms encounter several challenges, including (1) fragmentation of expertise, as there [...] Read more.
Companies increasingly tender knowledge-intensive tasks using crowdsourcing platforms to gain access to scarce knowledge and skills otherwise out of reach, and in this way, gaining competitive advantage. Despite its potential, existing crowdsourcing platforms encounter several challenges, including (1) fragmentation of expertise, as there are many platforms, (2) distrust between task providers and crowdsourcing participants, as identity and past performance are often not known, and (3) inability to learn from experience due to a lack of openness. A reference architecture for blockchain-based knowledge-intensive crowdsourcing platforms to mediate transactions between demand and supply of knowledge is designed in this paper to overcome these challenges. A design science research method is followed to develop the architecture. The reference architecture shows how blockchain and smart contract components can be integrated to support and coordinate knowledge-intensive crowdsourcing activities. By removing traditional e-commerce intermediaries, blockchain reduces search friction, knowledge transfer costs, and cheating by task providers or crowdsourcing participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Blockchain Commerce Driven Applications)
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Article
How Does Online Brand Community Climate Influence Community Identification? The Mediation of Social Capital
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 922-936; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040052 - 05 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 707
Abstract
Although online communities with a supportive climate encourage members to participate and exchange their information openly and freely, participants may perceive the community to be unsafe without proper control. Do controlling climates also contribute to the accumulation of social capital in online brand [...] Read more.
Although online communities with a supportive climate encourage members to participate and exchange their information openly and freely, participants may perceive the community to be unsafe without proper control. Do controlling climates also contribute to the accumulation of social capital in online brand communities (OBCs)? The purpose of our study was to investigate how controlling and supportive climates jointly influence community identification, and to examine the mediating effects of social capital and the moderating effects of community age. A conceptual framework was proposed and tested with data collected from an online survey of 481 online brand community members. We found that both controlling and supportive climates had positive effects on social capital (trust and norms of reciprocity), which exerted a partial mediation between community climate and community identification in the OBCs examined. Developing a community climate was particularly effective in generating trust in older communities. This research contributes to the community literature and has important implications for community climate management. We identified the boundary conditions of the community climate-trust association. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Digital Marketing and the Connected Consumer)
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Article
The Nexus between Formal Credit and E-Commerce Utilization of Entrepreneurial Farmers in Rural China: A Mediation Analysis
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 900-921; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040051 - 26 Feb 2021
Viewed by 676
Abstract
E-commerce furnishes farmers in rural China with a novel solution accomplishing entrepreneurship transformation, but serious credit constraints still coexist with it at present, which may restrict the release of e-commerce’s potential. Therefore, this study investigates whether formal credit promotes entrepreneurial farmers’ e-commerce utilization [...] Read more.
E-commerce furnishes farmers in rural China with a novel solution accomplishing entrepreneurship transformation, but serious credit constraints still coexist with it at present, which may restrict the release of e-commerce’s potential. Therefore, this study investigates whether formal credit promotes entrepreneurial farmers’ e-commerce utilization and explores its influencing mechanism. Based on the survey data collected from 831 entrepreneurial farmers in Shaanxi province, Ningxia province and Shandong province in rural China, the propensity score matching (PSM) method was applied to measure the impact of formal credit on e-commerce utilization. The results show that formal credit contributes to a 18.41% increase of e-commerce utilization in general and increases entrepreneurial farmers’ online purchases and sales by 11.15% and 14.69%, respectively. Some groups perform significantly in the heterogeneity analysis, the most noteworthy of which are entrepreneurial farmers who are younger, belong to new type of agricultural business entities and use mobile payments. Their e-commerce utilization, including online purchases and sales, are impacted most by formal credit. Furthermore, when the bootstrap method was used to examine the mediating effect, we found that formal credit has a positive and significant effect on the utilization of e-commerce through four channels, which are internet learning, asset allocation, labor allocation and income growth. Hence, the findings suggest that the government should augment the amount of formal credit to optimize entrepreneurial farmers’ internet learning, asset allocation, labor employment and income growth, thereby promoting e-commerce to achieve entrepreneurial transformation and sustainable development in rural areas. Full article
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Article
Portuguese and Spanish DMOs’ Accessibility Apps and Websites
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 874-899; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040050 - 21 Feb 2021
Viewed by 662
Abstract
“Tourism for all” is based on three main aspects: accessible tourism, sustainable tourism and social tourism. Accessibility is an essential part of responsible and sustainable tourism. A sizable segment of the population comprises people who have a type of disability or people who [...] Read more.
“Tourism for all” is based on three main aspects: accessible tourism, sustainable tourism and social tourism. Accessibility is an essential part of responsible and sustainable tourism. A sizable segment of the population comprises people who have a type of disability or people who are older and, as a result of age, experience diminished physical and/or mental abilities. The aim of this study is to analyze whether the mobile applications and websites of Portuguese and Spanish Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) are accessible. For this purpose, accessible destinations listed by the Tur4all project were taken as a sample for a quantitative exploratory study. Several tools related to accessibility were used to determine their level of compliance with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1. The results reveal that the percentage of non-compliance with accessibility criteria is very high in DMOs in Portugal and especially in Spain. In conclusion, tourism for all is important, including its digital tools. The practical implications include guidance on accessibility for institutions and companies, as well as a need to raise awareness of its importance in the tourism sector. This is the only study that analyzes the accessibility of both apps and websites of the same institution according to the requirements in WCAG 2.1. Full article
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Article
Pricing and Profit Management Models for SaaS Providers and IaaS Providers
by
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 859-873; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040049 - 20 Feb 2021
Viewed by 820
Abstract
Cloud computing has rapidly penetrated enterprise and user computing markets with three prominent service models: software as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and infrastructure as a service (IaaS). Cloud computing has also proven to be one of the most important [...] Read more.
Cloud computing has rapidly penetrated enterprise and user computing markets with three prominent service models: software as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS), and infrastructure as a service (IaaS). Cloud computing has also proven to be one of the most important environmentally sustainable technological innovations in the year of Industrial Revolution 4.0. While SaaS and IaaS are the two largest revenue generating services in the cloud service market, the pricing and profit generating mechanisms of the SaaS and IaaS providers have not yet been well understood. Unless the SaaS providers’ profit-maximizing decision is considered, any pricing decision by the IaaS providers is likely to be suboptimal. Hence, this paper proposes a Stackelberg game pricing decision model with the aim of maximizing the profit of the IaaS provider, given the best response of the SaaS provider. This paper develops an analytical closed-form solution to the pricing problem and presents sensitivity analyses to give valuable insights into the pricing dynamics and negotiation between the SaaS provider and IaaS provider. Finally, implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed. Full article
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Article
Order Picking and E-Commerce: Introducing Non-Parametric Efficiency Measurement for Sustainable Retail Logistics
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 846-858; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040048 - 16 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Order picking is a crucial but labor- and cost-intensive activity in the retail logistics and e-commerce domain. Comprehensive changes are implemented in this field due to new technologies like AI and automation. Nevertheless, human worker’s activities will be required for quite some time [...] Read more.
Order picking is a crucial but labor- and cost-intensive activity in the retail logistics and e-commerce domain. Comprehensive changes are implemented in this field due to new technologies like AI and automation. Nevertheless, human worker’s activities will be required for quite some time in the future. This fosters the necessity of evaluating manual picker-to-part operations. We apply the non-parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to evaluate the efficiency of n = 23 order pickers processing 6109 batches with 865,410 stock keeping units (SKUs). We use distance per location, picks per location, as well as volume per SKU as inputs and picks per hour as output. As the convexity axiom of standard DEA models cannot be fully satisfied when using ratio measures with different denominators, we apply the Free Disposal Hull (FDH) approach that does not assume convexity. Validating the efficiency scores with the company’s efficiency assessment, operationalized by premium payments shows a 93% goodness=of-fit for the proposed model. The formulated non-parametric approach and its empirical application are promising ways forward in implementing empirical efficiency measurements for order picking operations within e-commerce operations. Full article
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Article
What Deters Online Grocery Shopping? Investigating the Effect of Arithmetic Complexity and Product Type on User Satisfaction
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 828-845; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040047 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1388
Abstract
This paper explores the influence of product type and arithmetic task complexity on users’ perceived mental effort and satisfaction in the context of online grocery shopping. A two-factor within-subject experiment was conducted with 32 participants. Results show that experience products and complex arithmetic [...] Read more.
This paper explores the influence of product type and arithmetic task complexity on users’ perceived mental effort and satisfaction in the context of online grocery shopping. A two-factor within-subject experiment was conducted with 32 participants. Results show that experience products and complex arithmetic tasks are associated with higher perceived mental effort compared to search products and simple arithmetic tasks. Perceived mental effort and satisfaction are negatively related. The more cognitive effort users need to invest in their online shopping tasks, the less satisfied they are likely to be with their online experience. Our results suggest that cognitive absorption mediates the relationship between cognitive effort and satisfaction. The study contributes to our understanding of online grocery shopping by explaining the effect of arithmetic complexity and product type on user satisfaction. It also offers shopping website designers a way to improve consumers’ online grocery shopping experience by implementing simple technology features in their websites to help users reduce their mental effort. Full article
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Article
Proximity, Familiarity or Congruency? What Influences Memory of Brand Placement in Videogames
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 811-827; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040046 - 30 Jan 2021
Viewed by 979
Abstract
Brand placement in videogames consists in integrating various brands that are not intrusive to give a feeling of reality to the context, as such increasing awareness and recognition of the brand in the mind of the consumer. The goal of this study is [...] Read more.
Brand placement in videogames consists in integrating various brands that are not intrusive to give a feeling of reality to the context, as such increasing awareness and recognition of the brand in the mind of the consumer. The goal of this study is to ascertain if brand position, familiarity and congruency influence memorization of brands presented in a racing videogame. An experimental design 2 (position: prominent or subtle) × 2 (congruency: yes or no) × 2 (familiar: yes or no) was used in a sample of 117 participants (M = 20.91 years, SD = 1.75 years). Consumers have better recall and recognition of brand placement when it is familiar. Likewise, there is more memorization of placement that is congruent with the videogame’s subject matter. Nevertheless, it appears that position has no influence on memory. Regarding the three-way interaction, it turns out that the best way to remember brands is when they are familiar to the consumers, congruent with the videogame’s genre, and they are positioned in a prominent position. This article is the first to investigate the interaction between the three main variables that affect the memorization of brand placement. Full article
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Article
Investigating the Impact of Competition and Incentive Design on Performance of Crowdfunding Projects: A Case of Independent Movies
by
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 791-810; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040045 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Recently, crowdfunding has become a popular e-commerce model based on web 2.0 platforms for fundraisers to collect funding from a large group of supporters using the Internet. However, many projects failed to reach their funding targets. Despite the growing interest of academic researchers [...] Read more.
Recently, crowdfunding has become a popular e-commerce model based on web 2.0 platforms for fundraisers to collect funding from a large group of supporters using the Internet. However, many projects failed to reach their funding targets. Despite the growing interest of academic researchers and e-commerce professionals in identifying drivers of crowdfunding success, important factors like competition and incentive design have not received much attention in prior research. In this study we aim to fill this gap by investigating the impact of competition and incentive design on the performance of crowdfunding projects. Drawing upon literature of entrepreneurship, we develop a research model involving key factors such as competition intensity and the number of reward levels. Using real data of 209 independent movie projects of an online crowdfunding platform, we test the proposed hypotheses of the impact of competition and incentive design on crowdfunding success. Our results show that competition plays a significant role in crowdfunding performance. The higher competition pressure is, the lower performance of crowdfunding projects will be. We also find that factors such as the number of reward levels and the plan of attending movie festivals are essential to the success of crowdfunding projects, but the funding level of getting the top reward does not exert a significant impact. Our study contributes to the e-commerce literature by further exploring the mechanism of crowdfunding success with theoretical explanation and empirical evidence. Researchers and professionals can apply our theoretical findings regarding competition and incentive design in other e-commerce platforms. Furthermore, our results provide useful managerial insights and operational policies for project founders and managers of crowdfunding platforms. Full article
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Article
How to Engage Consumers through Effective Social Media Use—Guidelines for Consumer Goods Companies from an Emerging Market
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 768-790; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040044 - 25 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1161
Abstract
This study aims to establish actionable guidelines and provide strategic insights as a means of increasing the social media effectiveness of consumer brands. Post-related factors in addition to the contextual and temporal factors influencing consumer engagement (i.e., reposting, commenting on or liking posts), [...] Read more.
This study aims to establish actionable guidelines and provide strategic insights as a means of increasing the social media effectiveness of consumer brands. Post-related factors in addition to the contextual and temporal factors influencing consumer engagement (i.e., reposting, commenting on or liking posts), as an indicator of social media effectiveness, are considered in detail in the research model. Moreover, the model considers differences between industries as well as social media platforms. A total of 1130 posts made by four brands, two each from the durable goods and fast-moving consumer goods sectors, were collected from Facebook and Twitter in Turkey. Through predictive analysis, four different machine learning algorithms were utilized to develop easy-to-apply plans of action and strategies. The findings highlight the significant impact of videos, images, post frequency and interactivity on engagement. Furthermore, social media platforms and the brands themselves were found to be instrumental in influencing engagement levels, indicating that more than one formula is needed for effective social media management. The range and depth of the post-related factors (e.g., image type, video length, kind of interactivity) considered go far beyond those found in the significant majority of similar studies. Moreover, the unique setting and the novel data analysis algorithms applied set this study apart from similar ones. Full article
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Article
The Influence of Opinion Leaders’ eWOM on Online Consumer Decisions: A Study on Social Influence
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 748-767; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040043 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1625
Abstract
Opinion leaders and eWOM are becoming two of the most effective ways to launch a brand on social media by creating viral marketing. However, how much influence does an opinion leader’s eWOM (OL eWOM) have on consumer purchasing decisions? This research looks at [...] Read more.
Opinion leaders and eWOM are becoming two of the most effective ways to launch a brand on social media by creating viral marketing. However, how much influence does an opinion leader’s eWOM (OL eWOM) have on consumer purchasing decisions? This research looks at the role of OL eWOM as well as the effect of its valence and product type on the decision to buy or not buy from a realistic experimental online store design. In total, 300 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of five scenarios in a 22 experimental arrangement. Results show that OL eWOM influences consumer online decisions when purchasing experience-type goods and the valence of eWOM is positive. However, if we compare the OL eWOM with a control group, then OL eWOM does not have a significant influence. This research provides novel empirical evidence for the limited influence of OL in modeling shopping behaviors in e-commerce contexts. Full article
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Article
Looking Back to Move Forward: A Bibliometric Analysis of Consumer Privacy Research
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J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 727-747; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040042 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1088
Abstract
Information privacy has attracted considerable attention in the information system research field. However, little effort has been made to review its latest developments from a marketing perspective. As research on consumer privacy advances rapidly, a comprehensive evaluation of the field is required. In [...] Read more.
Information privacy has attracted considerable attention in the information system research field. However, little effort has been made to review its latest developments from a marketing perspective. As research on consumer privacy advances rapidly, a comprehensive evaluation of the field is required. In this paper, two bibliographic databases retrieved from Web of Science were used to perform a series of bibliometric analyses consisting of co-citation analysis, co-occurring keyword analysis, and structural variation analysis. To facilitate these analyses, we use the software CiteSpace. Our results present the existing literature’s publication performance, thematic concentration, intellectual turning points and influential studies, and identify emerging trends in the literature. We found that a number of landmark studies has greatly affected the development of the consumer privacy research. Most importantly, this study proposes a research agenda for the field. Recent emerging topics focusing on privacy calculus, privacy ethic, privacy enhancing technologies, privacy-related coping strategies, and new contemporary privacy contexts should be further discussed in the future research. Full article
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Article
The Nonlinear Impact of Task Rewards and Duration on Solvers’ Participation Behavior: A Study on Online Crowdsourcing Platform
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 709-726; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040041 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 732
Abstract
Crowdsourcing has attracted significant attention in the past decade because it has more competitive advantages than traditional methods for mobilizing distributed labor and utilizing innovation. Crowdsourcing contests are one of the most popular and effective crowdsourcing modes. Reasonable task rewards and duration are [...] Read more.
Crowdsourcing has attracted significant attention in the past decade because it has more competitive advantages than traditional methods for mobilizing distributed labor and utilizing innovation. Crowdsourcing contests are one of the most popular and effective crowdsourcing modes. Reasonable task rewards and duration are the key factors for seekers to attract solvers who can efficiently participate in the crowdsourcing contest task. Previous studies have mainly focused on task results to analyze solvers’ participation behavior in crowdsourcing contests, but have paid little attention to the task process, and there have been conflicting conclusions regarding the impact of task rewards and duration on solvers’ participation behavior and the performance of crowdsourcing contests. In view of this gap, this study collected 2706 logo design task data points from 2015–2017 on an online crowdsourcing platform and measured the performance of solvers’ participation behavior in two stages. The participation time was used to represent the performance of solvers’ participation behavior in the task process, while the number of submissions of solutions was used to represent the performance of participation behavior in the task result. The results show that task rewards and duration have an inverted U-shaped effect on the number of submissions, money rewards have a positive impact on participation time, and duration has an inverted U-shaped relationship with participation time. This study proposes the nonlinear effects of task rewards and duration on participation behavior and explains the reason for the conflicting results of previous studies. This paper also expands upon existing research by using solvers’ participation time in the task process to measure the performance of solvers’ participation behavior. Full article
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Article
Professionalization of Online Gaming? Theoretical and Empirical Analysis for a Monopoly-Holding Platform
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 682-708; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040040 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
We analyze the private equilibrium of a two-sided market representing the online gaming industry under a principal-agent model. A monopoly-holding platform hires a manager to attract new members from both sides of the market while considering uncertainty on the adhesion of viewers and [...] Read more.
We analyze the private equilibrium of a two-sided market representing the online gaming industry under a principal-agent model. A monopoly-holding platform hires a manager to attract new members from both sides of the market while considering uncertainty on the adhesion of viewers and online gamers. First, we mathematically demonstrate that increasing cross-group network externalities can decrease the platform’s profit, which contradicts a canonical result from the field of two-sided markets. Moreover, knowing that the intermediary’s goal is aligned with the private interest of online gamers, machine learning models empirically show that the main theoretical outcome is observed in reality due to the presence of heterogeneous indirect network effects in online gaming activities. Second, we conclude that social welfare can be either harmed or improved for increasing cross-group network externalities, which means that the professionalization of online gaming may or may not be legitimized depending on the value taken by exogenous parameters related to the platform’s uncertainty on the number of agents that get on board, risk aversion of viewers, and royalty rate applied to online gamers. Finally, a discussion based on 2020 facts is provided and several policy recommendations are formulated to ensure the persistence of best regulatory practices. Full article
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Article
A New Measure of Complementarity in Market Basket Data
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 670-681; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040039 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Modern IT systems collect detailed data on each activity, transaction, forum entry, conversation and many other areas. The availability of large data volumes in the business, industry and research fields opens up new opportunities for the empirical verification of various economic theories and [...] Read more.
Modern IT systems collect detailed data on each activity, transaction, forum entry, conversation and many other areas. The availability of large data volumes in the business, industry and research fields opens up new opportunities for the empirical verification of various economic theories and laws. The analysis of big datasets in turn allows us to look at many issues from a new point of view and see the dependencies that are otherwise difficult to derive. In this paper, we propose a new measure for dependencies between goods in market basket data. The introduced measure was inspired by the well-known microeconomic concept of complementarity. Due to its similar properties to those of complementarity, the new measure was called basket complementarity (b-complementarity). B-complementarity not only measures the strength of dependencies between goods but also measures the direction of these dependencies. The values of the proposed measure can be relatively easily calculated using market basket data. This paper also presents a simple example illustrating this new concept, areas of possible application (e.g., in e-commerce) and preliminary results of searching for goods that meet the criteria of basket complementarity in real market basket data. Full article
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Article
Online Reviews and Product Sales: The Role of Review Visibility
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 638-669; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040038 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
When studying the impact of online reviews on product sales, previous scholars have usually assumed that every review for a product has the same probability of being viewed by consumers. However, decision-making and information processing theories underline that the accessibility of information plays [...] Read more.
When studying the impact of online reviews on product sales, previous scholars have usually assumed that every review for a product has the same probability of being viewed by consumers. However, decision-making and information processing theories underline that the accessibility of information plays a role in consumer decision-making. We incorporate the notion of review visibility to study the relationship between online reviews and product sales, which is proxied by sales rank information, studying three different cases: (1) when every online review is assumed to have the same probability of being viewed; (2) when we assume that consumers sort online reviews by the most helpful mechanism; and (3) when we assume that consumers sort online reviews by the most recent mechanism. Review non-textual and textual variables are analyzed. The empirical analysis is conducted using a panel of 119 cosmetic products over a period of nine weeks. Using the system generalized method of moments (system GMM) method for dynamic models of panel data, our findings reveal that review variables influence product sales, but the magnitude, and even the direction of the effect, vary amongst visibility cases. Overall, the characteristics of the most helpful reviews have a higher impact on sales. Full article
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Article
Young Generation’s Mobile Payment Adoption Behavior: Analysis Based on an Extended UTAUT Model
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 618-637; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040037 - 04 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1320
Abstract
Younger generations comprise an essential segment for the mobile payment market to prosper. However, empirical evidence of the drivers/barriers of the young generation’s adoption of mobile payment has been inconclusive. This study intends to advance the body of knowledge on this subject based [...] Read more.
Younger generations comprise an essential segment for the mobile payment market to prosper. However, empirical evidence of the drivers/barriers of the young generation’s adoption of mobile payment has been inconclusive. This study intends to advance the body of knowledge on this subject based on the extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), incorporating the young generation’s risk perception and bonus/rewards provided by the mobile-pay firms. To this end, 295 samples with the majority being more tech-savvy, namely generation Y and generation Z, were collected from an online survey in Taiwan. The empirical results in this study demonstrate the uniquely positive effect of social influence on the young generations’ behavioral intention to adopt mobile payment. While behavioral intention and promotional activities are the drivers of the young generation’s actual usage of mobile payment, perceived risks are found to exert a negative impact, reflecting the risk-averse preferences of the young generation in Taiwan. The ignorable moderation effect of gender, on the other hand, suggests the absence of a gender gap in the use of mobile payment among the young generations. The findings in this research have important implications for the development of promotion programs motivating the young generation’s adoption of mobile payment. Full article
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Article
Social Media Activities and Its Influence on Customer-Brand Relationship: An Empirical Study of Apparel Retailers’ Activity in India
J. Theor. Appl. Electron. Commer. Res. 2021, 16(4), 602-617; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jtaer16040036 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2084
Abstract
In this digital era, the internet, and Social Media (SM) has had a radical impact on the shopping behavior of “costumers” The SM provides a platform where “costumers” are exposed to the best product with the best price along with reviews and opinions [...] Read more.
In this digital era, the internet, and Social Media (SM) has had a radical impact on the shopping behavior of “costumers” The SM provides a platform where “costumers” are exposed to the best product with the best price along with reviews and opinions about the merchandise. So, we can turn our heads and look at a brand in a way as if the brand is speaking to us. This study was an attempt to explore the Social Media Marketing Activities (SMMA) that are being used for the marketing of fashionable products like apparel and to what level the SMMA activities of brands truly strengthen the relationship with customers and motivate purchase intention. Moreover, SMMA has a robust application in developing a marketing strategy for business. It has become a significant tool that collaborates with businesses and people. It is concluded that the “costumer”-brand relationship does have a positive and statistically significant impact on consumers’ purchase intention through SM. Full article
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