Next Article in Journal
Interplay between Autophagy and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Previous Article in Journal
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Affects Mouse Sperm Parameters, Spontaneous Acrosome Reaction, and Fertility Capacity

Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Experimental Epileptogenesis and Refractory Epilepsy

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, College of Medicine, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, Bryan, TX 77807, USA
Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work (co-first authors).
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 220;
Received: 16 December 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2019 / Published: 8 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Neurobiology)
This article provides an overview of neuroimaging biomarkers in experimental epileptogenesis and refractory epilepsy. Neuroimaging represents a gold standard and clinically translatable technique to identify neuropathological changes in epileptogenesis and longitudinally monitor its progression after a precipitating injury. Neuroimaging studies, along with molecular studies from animal models, have greatly improved our understanding of the neuropathology of epilepsy, such as the hallmark hippocampus sclerosis. Animal models are effective for differentiating the different stages of epileptogenesis. Neuroimaging in experimental epilepsy provides unique information about anatomic, functional, and metabolic alterations linked to epileptogenesis. Recently, several in vivo biomarkers for epileptogenesis have been investigated for characterizing neuronal loss, inflammation, blood-brain barrier alterations, changes in neurotransmitter density, neurovascular coupling, cerebral blood flow and volume, network connectivity, and metabolic activity in the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive method for detecting structural and functional changes in the brain, especially to identify region-specific neuronal damage patterns in epilepsy. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computerized tomography are helpful to elucidate key functional alterations, especially in areas of brain metabolism and molecular patterns, and can help monitor pathology of epileptic disorders. Multimodal procedures such as PET-MRI integrated systems are desired for refractory epilepsy. Validated biomarkers are warranted for early identification of people at risk for epilepsy and monitoring of the progression of medical interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: epilepsy; epileptogenesis; seizures; biomarkers; imaging; MRI; PET; SPECT epilepsy; epileptogenesis; seizures; biomarkers; imaging; MRI; PET; SPECT
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Reddy, S.D.; Younus, I.; Sridhar, V.; Reddy, D.S. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Experimental Epileptogenesis and Refractory Epilepsy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 220.

AMA Style

Reddy SD, Younus I, Sridhar V, Reddy DS. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Experimental Epileptogenesis and Refractory Epilepsy. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(1):220.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reddy, Sandesh D., Iyan Younus, Vidya Sridhar, and Doodipala S. Reddy 2019. "Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Experimental Epileptogenesis and Refractory Epilepsy" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 1: 220.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop