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Transcriptome Analysis of Pyrus betulaefolia Seedling Root Responses to Short-Term Potassium Deficiency

Syringic Acid Alleviates Cesium-Induced Growth Defect in Arabidopsis

RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 1-7-22 Suehirocho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Galdieria, Co., Ltd., 2-4-2-709 Nihonbashi Hama-cho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0007, Japan.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(23), 9116;
Received: 30 October 2020 / Revised: 26 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 30 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Transport and Homeostasis in Plants)
Syringic acid, a phenolic compound, serves a variety of beneficial functions in cells. Syringic acid increases in plants in response to cesium, and exogenous application of syringic acid resulted in a significant attenuation of cesium-induced growth defects in Arabidopsis. In addition, cesium or syringic acid application to plants also resulted in increased lignin deposition in interfascicular fibers. To better understand the role of lignin and syringic acid in attenuating cesium-induced growth defects, two mutants for Arabidopsis REDUCED EPIDERMAL FLUORESCENE 4 (REF4) and fourteen laccase mutants, some of which have lower levels of lignin, were evaluated for their response to cesium. These mutants responded differently to cesium stress, compared to control plants, and the application of syringic acid alleviated cesium-induced growth defects in the laccase mutants but not in the ref4 mutants. These findings imply that lignin plays a role in cesium signaling but the attenuation of cesium stress defects by syringic acid is mediated by regulatory components of lignin biosynthesis and not lignin biosynthesis itself. In contrast, syringic acid did not alleviate any low potassium-induced growth defects. Collectively, our findings provide the first established link between lignin and cesium stress via syringic acid in plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: cesium; lignin; REF4; syringic acid cesium; lignin; REF4; syringic acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adams, E.; Miyazaki, T.; Moon, J.Y.; Sawada, Y.; Sato, M.; Toyooka, K.; Hirai, M.Y.; Shin, R. Syringic Acid Alleviates Cesium-Induced Growth Defect in Arabidopsis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9116.

AMA Style

Adams E, Miyazaki T, Moon JY, Sawada Y, Sato M, Toyooka K, Hirai MY, Shin R. Syringic Acid Alleviates Cesium-Induced Growth Defect in Arabidopsis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(23):9116.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adams, Eri, Takae Miyazaki, Ju Y. Moon, Yuji Sawada, Muneo Sato, Kiminori Toyooka, Masami Y. Hirai, and Ryoung Shin. 2020. "Syringic Acid Alleviates Cesium-Induced Growth Defect in Arabidopsis" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 23: 9116.

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