Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic factor sensed by most cells. It regulates a broad spectrum of cellular responses including hematopoiesis. In order to process TGF-β1-responses in time and space in an appropriate manner, there is a tight regulation of its signaling at diverse steps. The downstream signaling is mediated by type I and type II receptors and modulated by the ‘accessory’ receptor Endoglin also termed cluster of differentiation 105 (CD105). Endoglin was initially identified on pre-B leukemia cells but has received most attention due to its high expression on activated endothelial cells. In turn, Endoglin has been figured out as the causative factor for diseases associated with vascular dysfunction like hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-1 (HHT-1), pre-eclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction (IUPR). Because HHT patients often show signs of inflammation at vascular lesions, and loss of Endoglin in the myeloid lineage leads to spontaneous inflammation, it is speculated that Endoglin impacts inflammatory processes. In line, Endoglin is expressed on progenitor/precursor cells during hematopoiesis as well as on mature, differentiated cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. However, so far only pro-monocytes and macrophages have been in the focus of research, although Endoglin has been identified in many other immune system cell subsets. These findings imply a functional role of Endoglin in the maturation and function of immune cells. Aside the functional relevance of Endoglin in endothelial cells, CD105 is differentially expressed during hematopoiesis, arguing for a role of this receptor in the development of individual cell lineages. In addition, Endoglin expression is present on mature immune cells of the innate (i.e., macrophages and mast cells) and the adaptive (i.e., T-cells) immune system, further suggesting Endoglin as a factor that shapes immune responses. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on Endoglin expression and function in hematopoietic precursors and mature hematopoietic cells of different lineages.
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