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Article

Ginsenoside M1 Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits the Migration of Human Oral Cancer Cells

1
Department of Biotechnology and Animal Science, National Ilan University, Ilan 260007, Taiwan
2
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linsen, Chinese Medicine and Kunming Branch, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei 10844, Taiwan
3
National Defense Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
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Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
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Liver Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Gueishan, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan
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Division of Wood Cellulose, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei 100051, Taiwan
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G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry FEB RAS, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia
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Wellhead Biological Technology Corporation, Taoyuan 325, Taiwan
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Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 406040, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(24), 9704; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249704
Received: 1 December 2020 / Revised: 14 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 19 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma)
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for 5.8% of all malignancies in Taiwan, and the incidence of OSCC is on the rise. OSCC is also a common malignancy worldwide, and the five-year survival rate remains poor. Therefore, new and effective treatments are needed to control OSCC. In the present study, we prepared ginsenoside M1 (20-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol), a major deglycosylated metabolite of ginsenoside, through the biotransformation of Panax notoginseng leaves by the fungus SP-LSL-002. We investigated the anti-OSCC activity and associated mechanisms of ginsenoside M1 in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that ginsenoside M1 dose-dependently inhibited the viability of human OSCC SAS and OEC-M1 cells. To gain further insight into the mode of action of ginsenoside M1, we demonstrated that ginsenoside M1 increased the expression levels of Bak, Bad, and p53 and induced apoptotic DNA breaks, G1 phase arrest, PI/Annexin V double-positive staining, and caspase-3/9 activation. In addition, we demonstrated that ginsenoside M1 dose-dependently inhibited the colony formation and migration ability of SAS and OEC-M1 cells and reduced the expression of metastasis-related protein vimentin. Furthermore, oral administration or subcutaneous injection of ginsenoside M1 significantly reduced tumor growth in SAS xenograft mice. These results indicate that ginsenoside M1 can be translated into a potential therapeutic against OSCC. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral squamous cell carcinoma; ginsenoside; biotransformation; apoptosis; migration; caspase; xenograft oral squamous cell carcinoma; ginsenoside; biotransformation; apoptosis; migration; caspase; xenograft
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, Y.-C.; Wong, W.-T.; Li, L.-H.; Chu, L.J.; Menon, M.P.; Ho, C.-L.; Chernikov, O.V.; Lee, S.-L.; Hua, K.-F. Ginsenoside M1 Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits the Migration of Human Oral Cancer Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 9704. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249704

AMA Style

Lee Y-C, Wong W-T, Li L-H, Chu LJ, Menon MP, Ho C-L, Chernikov OV, Lee S-L, Hua K-F. Ginsenoside M1 Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits the Migration of Human Oral Cancer Cells. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(24):9704. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249704

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Yu-Chieh, Wei-Ting Wong, Lan-Hui Li, Lichieh J. Chu, Mridula P. Menon, Chen-Lung Ho, Oleg V. Chernikov, Sheau-Long Lee, and Kuo-Feng Hua. 2020. "Ginsenoside M1 Induces Apoptosis and Inhibits the Migration of Human Oral Cancer Cells" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 24: 9704. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21249704

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