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Systematic Review

A Review of the Significance in Measuring Preoperative and Postoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Values in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC)

1
1st Department of Surgery, “Papageorgiou” General Hospital of Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54621 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Department of Neurosurgery, 424 General Military Hospital of Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54621 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54621 Thessaloniki, Greece
4
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54621 Thessaloniki, Greece
5
3rd University Surgical Department, “AHEPA” University Hospital of Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54621 Thessaloniki, Greece
6
UMF “Victor Babes”, Surgery Clinic II, 300041 Timisoara, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Andrea Mingoli, Domenico Albano and Giovanni Tarantino
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 7 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 11 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Surgery)
Background and Objectives: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) accounts for 1–2% of all thyroid malignancies, and it originates from parafollicular “C” cells. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a tumor marker, mainly for gastrointestinal malignancies. There are references in literature where elevated CEA levels may be the first finding in MTC. The aim of this study is to determine the importance of measuring preoperative and postoperative CEA values in patients with MTC and to define the clinical significance of the correlation between CEA and the origin of C cells. Materials and Methods: The existing and relevant literature was reviewed by searching for articles and specific keywords in the scientific databases of PubMedCentraland Google Scholar (till December 2020). Results: CEA has found its place, especially at the preoperative level, in the diagnostic approach of MTC. Preoperative CEA values >30 ng/mL indicate extra-thyroid disease, while CEA values >100 ng/mL are associated with lymph node involvement and distant metastases. The increase in CEA values preoperatively is associated with larger size of primary tumor, presence of lymph nodes, distant metastases and a poorer prognosis. The clinical significance of CEA values for the surgeon is the optimal planning of surgical treatment. In the recent literature, C cells seem to originate from the endoderm of the primitive anterior gut at the ultimobranchial bodies’ level. Conclusions: Although CEA is not a specific biomarker of the disease in MTC, itsmeasurement is useful in assessing the progression of the disease. The embryonic origin of C cells could explain the increased CEA values in MTC. View Full-Text
Keywords: medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA); preoperative; embryologic origin; monoclonal antibodies medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA); preoperative; embryologic origin; monoclonal antibodies
MDPI and ACS Style

Passos, I.; Stefanidou, E.; Meditskou-Eythymiadou, S.; Mironidou-Tzouveleki, M.; Manaki, V.; Magra, V.; Laskou, S.; Mantalovas, S.; Pantea, S.; Kesisoglou, I.; Sapalidis, K. A Review of the Significance in Measuring Preoperative and Postoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Values in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC). Medicina 2021, 57, 609. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060609

AMA Style

Passos I, Stefanidou E, Meditskou-Eythymiadou S, Mironidou-Tzouveleki M, Manaki V, Magra V, Laskou S, Mantalovas S, Pantea S, Kesisoglou I, Sapalidis K. A Review of the Significance in Measuring Preoperative and Postoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Values in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC). Medicina. 2021; 57(6):609. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060609

Chicago/Turabian Style

Passos, Ioannis, Elisavet Stefanidou, Soultana Meditskou-Eythymiadou, Maria Mironidou-Tzouveleki, Vasiliki Manaki, Vasiliki Magra, Styliani Laskou, Stylianos Mantalovas, Stelian Pantea, Isaak Kesisoglou, and Konstantinos Sapalidis. 2021. "A Review of the Significance in Measuring Preoperative and Postoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Values in Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC)" Medicina 57, no. 6: 609. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060609

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