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Adolescence, Adulthood and Self-Perceived Halitosis: A Role of Psychological Factors

1
Department of Biomedical, Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Psychiatric Unit Policlinico “G. Martino” Hospital, 98124 Messina, Italy
2
Psychiatric Unit, Policlinico Hospital “G. Martino”, 98124 Messina, Italy
3
Department of Political Sciences, University of Messina, 98122 Messina, Italy
4
Department of Stomatology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vita Maciulskiene
Received: 12 May 2021 / Revised: 26 May 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 12 June 2021
(1) Background: Halitosis is a frequent condition that affects a large part of the population. It is considered a “social stigma”, as it can determine a number of psychological and relationship consequences that affect people’s lives. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of psychological factors in the condition of self-perceived halitosis in adolescent subjects and adulthood. (2) Type of studies reviewed: We conducted, by the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, systematic research of the literature on PubMed and Scholar. The key terms used were halitosis, halitosis self-perception, psychological factors, breath odor and two terms related to socio-relational consequences (“Halitosis and Social Relationship” OR “Social Issue of Halitosis”). Initial research identified 3008 articles. As a result of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the number of publications was reduced to 38. (3) Results: According to the literature examined, halitosis is a condition that is rarely self-perceived. In general, women have a greater ability to recognize it than men. Several factors can affect the perception of the dental condition, such as socioeconomic status, emotional state and body image. (4) Conclusion and practical implication: Self-perceived halitosis could have a significant impact on the patient’s quality of life. Among the most frequent consequences are found anxiety, reduced levels of self-esteem, misinterpretation of other people’s attitudes and embarrassment and relational discomfort that often result in social isolation. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-perceived halitosis; psychological factors; breath odor; halitosis and social relationship self-perceived halitosis; psychological factors; breath odor; halitosis and social relationship
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mento, C.; Lombardo, C.; Milazzo, M.; Whithorn, N.I.; Boronat-Catalá, M.; Almiñana-Pastor, P.J.; Fernàndez, C.S.; Bruno, A.; Muscatello, M.R.A.; Zoccali, R.A. Adolescence, Adulthood and Self-Perceived Halitosis: A Role of Psychological Factors. Medicina 2021, 57, 614. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060614

AMA Style

Mento C, Lombardo C, Milazzo M, Whithorn NI, Boronat-Catalá M, Almiñana-Pastor PJ, Fernàndez CS, Bruno A, Muscatello MRA, Zoccali RA. Adolescence, Adulthood and Self-Perceived Halitosis: A Role of Psychological Factors. Medicina. 2021; 57(6):614. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060614

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mento, Carmela, Clara Lombardo, Mariacristina Milazzo, Nicholas I. Whithorn, Montserrat Boronat-Catalá, Pedro J. Almiñana-Pastor, Cristina S. Fernàndez, Antonio Bruno, Maria R.A. Muscatello, and Rocco A. Zoccali 2021. "Adolescence, Adulthood and Self-Perceived Halitosis: A Role of Psychological Factors" Medicina 57, no. 6: 614. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicina57060614

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