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Mar. Drugs, Volume 20, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 66 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The overexpression of efflux pumps is one of the multidrug resistance mechanisms in bacteria. The search for efflux inhibitors has been prolific, despite none being clinically approved. In this study, we explored the potential of marine-inspired chalcones, dihydrochalcones, and diarylpropanes as Gram-positive efflux pump inhibitors. For promising compounds, their effect on the formation of a biofilm was also investigated, as efflux pumps are related to this resistance mechanism. Structure-activity relationships were established and show the potential of this scaffold in the reversal of antimicrobial resistance, emphasizing the importance of the marine environment as a source of templates for new drugs. View this paper
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Article
Brasilterpenes A–E, Bergamotane Sesquiterpenoid Derivatives with Hypoglycemic Activity from the Deep Sea-Derived Fungus Paraconiothyrium brasiliense HDN15-135
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 338; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050338 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Five bergamotane sesquiterpenoid derivatives, brasilterpenes A–E (15), bearing an unreported spiral 6/4/5 tricyclic ring system, were isolated from the deep sea-derived ascomycete fungus Paraconiothyrium brasiliense HDN15-135. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were established by extensive spectroscopic methods complemented by [...] Read more.
Five bergamotane sesquiterpenoid derivatives, brasilterpenes A–E (15), bearing an unreported spiral 6/4/5 tricyclic ring system, were isolated from the deep sea-derived ascomycete fungus Paraconiothyrium brasiliense HDN15-135. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were established by extensive spectroscopic methods complemented by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and density-functional theory (DFT) calculations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data including DP4+ analysis. The hypoglycemic activity of these compounds was assessed using a diabetic zebrafish model. Brasilterpenes A (1) and C (3) significantly reduced free blood glucose in hyperglycemic zebrafish in vivo by improving insulin sensitivity and suppressing gluconeogenesis. Moreover, the hypoglycemic activity of compound 3 was comparable to the positive control, anti-diabetes drug rosiglitazone. These results suggested brasilterpene C (3) had promising anti-diabetes potential. Full article
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Review
Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chilean Marine Algae: A Review
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 337; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050337 - 23 May 2022
Viewed by 551
Abstract
Chile is in the extreme southwestern part of America, and it has an extreme length, of approximately 4300 km that increases to 8000 km considering the Chilean Antarctic Territory. Despite the large extent of its coastal territory and the diversity of geographic environments [...] Read more.
Chile is in the extreme southwestern part of America, and it has an extreme length, of approximately 4300 km that increases to 8000 km considering the Chilean Antarctic Territory. Despite the large extent of its coastal territory and the diversity of geographic environments and climates associated with Chilean coasts, the research on marine resources in Chile has been rather scarce. From marine organisms found in Chilean coastal waters, algae have been the most studied, since they contain a wide range of interesting secondary metabolites that have some structural traits that make them unique and uncharacteristic. Thus, a wide structural variety of natural products including terpenoids (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and meroterpenoids), furanones, and C15-acetogenins have been isolated and identified. This review describes the existing literature on bioprospecting and exploration of secondary metabolites from Chilean coasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Product of the South Pacific Area II)
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Review
Exopolysaccharides from Microalgae and Cyanobacteria: Diversity of Strains, Production Strategies, and Applications
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050336 - 21 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 745
Abstract
Microalgae and cyanobacteria are photosynthetic organisms that can produce/accumulate biomolecules with industrial interest. Among these molecules, EPSs are macromolecular polysaccharidic compounds that present biological activities and physico-chemical properties, allowing to consider their valorization in diverse commercial markets, such as cosmetic, therapeutic, nutraceutic, or [...] Read more.
Microalgae and cyanobacteria are photosynthetic organisms that can produce/accumulate biomolecules with industrial interest. Among these molecules, EPSs are macromolecular polysaccharidic compounds that present biological activities and physico-chemical properties, allowing to consider their valorization in diverse commercial markets, such as cosmetic, therapeutic, nutraceutic, or hydrocolloids areas. The number of microalgae and cyanobacteria strains described to produce such EPSs has increased in recent years as, among the 256 producing strains gathered in this review, 86 were published in the last 10 years (~33%). Moreover, with the rise of research on microalgae EPSs, a variety of monosaccharides compositions have been discovered, highlighting the versatility of these organisms. If some production strategies can be applied to increase EPS production yields, it appears that case by case studies are needed to promote EPS synthesis by a strain, as many responses exist. This paper proposes an up-to-date state of the art of the diversity of microalgae and cyanobacteria EPS-producing strains, associated to the variability of compositions. The strategies for the production and extraction of the polymers are also discussed. Finally, an overview of the biological activities and physico-chemical properties allow one to consider their use on several commercial markets. Full article
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Review
Multiple Roles of Chitosan in Mucosal Drug Delivery: An Updated Review
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 335; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050335 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Chitosan (CS) is a linear polysaccharide obtained by the deacetylation of chitin, which, after cellulose, is the second biopolymer most abundant in nature, being the primary component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects. Since joining the pharmaceutical field, in the early 1990s, [...] Read more.
Chitosan (CS) is a linear polysaccharide obtained by the deacetylation of chitin, which, after cellulose, is the second biopolymer most abundant in nature, being the primary component of the exoskeleton of crustaceans and insects. Since joining the pharmaceutical field, in the early 1990s, CS attracted great interest, which has constantly increased over the years, due to its several beneficial and favorable features, including large availability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, simplicity of chemical modifications, mucoadhesion and permeation enhancer power, joined to its capability of forming films, hydrogels and micro- and nanoparticles. Moreover, its cationic character, which renders it unique among biodegradable polymers, is responsible for the ability of CS to strongly interact with different types of molecules and for its intrinsic antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and hemostatic activities. However, its pH-dependent solubility and susceptibility to ions presence may represent serious drawbacks and require suitable strategies to be overcome. Presently, CS and its derivatives are widely investigated for a great variety of pharmaceutical applications, particularly in drug delivery. Among the alternative routes to overcome the problems related to the classic oral drug administration, the mucosal route is becoming the favorite non-invasive delivery pathway. This review aims to provide an updated overview of the applications of CS and its derivatives in novel formulations intended for different methods of mucosal drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmaceutical Formulation of Marine Drugs)
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Article
Bioactivity-Guided Screening of Antimicrobial Secondary Metabolites from Antarctic Cultivable Fungus Acrostalagmus luteoalbus CH-6 Combined with Molecular Networking
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 334; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050334 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 591
Abstract
With the increasingly serious antimicrobial resistance, discovering novel antibiotics has grown impendency. The Antarctic abundant microbial resources, especially fungi, can produce unique bioactive compounds for adapting to the hostile environment. In this study, three Antarctic fungi, Chrysosporium sp. HSXSD-11-1, Cladosporium sp. HSXSD-12 and [...] Read more.
With the increasingly serious antimicrobial resistance, discovering novel antibiotics has grown impendency. The Antarctic abundant microbial resources, especially fungi, can produce unique bioactive compounds for adapting to the hostile environment. In this study, three Antarctic fungi, Chrysosporium sp. HSXSD-11-1, Cladosporium sp. HSXSD-12 and Acrostalagmus luteoalbus CH-6, were found to have the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds. Furthermore, the crude extracts of CH-6 displayed the strongest antimicrobial activities with 72.3–84.8% growth inhibition against C. albicans and Aeromonas salmonicida. The secondary metabolites of CH-6 were researched by bioactivity tracking combined with molecular networking and led to the isolation of two new α-pyrones, acrostalapyrones A (1) and B (2), along with one known analog (3), and three known indole diketopiperazines (46). The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were identified through modified Mosher’s method. Compounds 4 and 6 showed strong antimicrobial activities. Remarkably, the antibacterial activity of 6 against A. salmonicida displayed two times higher than that of the positive drug Ciprofloxacin. This is the first report to discover α-pyrones from the genus Acrostalagmus, and the significant antimicrobial activities of 4 and 6 against C. albicans and A. salmonicida. This study further demonstrates the great potential of Antarctic fungi in the development of new compounds and antibiotics. Full article
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Review
Approaches to Configuration Determinations of Flexible Marine Natural Products: Advances and Prospects
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 333; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050333 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 644
Abstract
Flexible marine natural products (MNPs), such as eribulin and bryostatin, play an important role in the development of modern marine drugs. However, due to the multiple chiral centers and geometrical uncertainty of flexible systems, configuration determinations of flexible MNPs face great challenges, which, [...] Read more.
Flexible marine natural products (MNPs), such as eribulin and bryostatin, play an important role in the development of modern marine drugs. However, due to the multiple chiral centers and geometrical uncertainty of flexible systems, configuration determinations of flexible MNPs face great challenges, which, in turn, have led to obstacles in druggability research. To resolve this issue, the comprehensive use of multiple methods is necessary. Additionally, configuration assignment methods, such as X-ray single-crystal diffraction (crystalline derivatives, crystallization chaperones, and crystalline sponges), NMR-based methods (JBCA and Mosher’s method), circular dichroism-based methods (ECCD and ICD), quantum computational chemistry-based methods (NMR calculations, ECD calculations, and VCD calculations), and chemical transformation-based methods should be summarized. This paper reviews the basic principles, characteristics, and applicability of the methods mentioned above as well as application examples to broaden the research and applications of these methods and to provide a reference for the configuration determinations of flexible MNPs. Full article
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Article
Ferroptosis Related Immunomodulatory Effect of a Novel Extracellular Polysaccharides from Marine Fungus Aureobasidium melanogenum
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050332 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Marine fungi represent an important and sustainable resource, from which the search for novel biological substances for application in the pharmacy or food industry offers great potential. In our research, novel polysaccharide (AUM-1) was obtained from marine Aureobasidium melanogenum SCAU-266 were obtained and [...] Read more.
Marine fungi represent an important and sustainable resource, from which the search for novel biological substances for application in the pharmacy or food industry offers great potential. In our research, novel polysaccharide (AUM-1) was obtained from marine Aureobasidium melanogenum SCAU-266 were obtained and the molecular weight of AUM-1 was determined to be 8000 Da with 97.30% of glucose, 1.9% of mannose, and 0.08% galactose, owing to a potential backbone of α-D-Glcp-(1→2)-α-D-Manp-(1→4)-α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-(SO3)-4-α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-1-β-D-Glcp-1→2)-α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-β-D-Glcp-1→6)-α-D-Glcp-1→4)-α-D-Glcp-6→1)-[α-D-Glcp-4]26→1)-α-D-Glcp and two side chains that consisted of α-D-Glcp-1 and α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-α-D-Glcp residues. The immunomodulatory effect of AUM-1 was identified. Then, the potential molecular mechanism by which AUM-1 may be connected to ferroptosis was indicated by metabonomics, and the expression of COX2, SLC7A11, GPX4, ACSL4, FTH1, and ROS were further verified. Thus, we first speculated that AUM-1 has a potential effect on the ferroptosis-related immunomodulatory property in RAW 264.7 cells by adjusting the expression of GPX4, regulated glutathione (oxidative), directly causing lipid peroxidation owing to the higher ROS level through the glutamate metabolism and TCA cycle. Thus, the ferroptosis related immunomodulatory effect of AUM-1 was obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poly- and Oligosaccharides from Marine Origins)
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Article
Cyclodepsipeptides: Isolation from Endophytic Fungi of Sarcophyton ehrenbergi and Verification of Their Larvicidal Activity via In-Vitro and In-Silico Studies
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 331; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050331 - 18 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 604
Abstract
Culex pipiens mosquitoes are vectors to many viruses and can transmit diseases such as filariasis and avian malaria. The present study evaluated the larvicidal activity of marine-derived endophytic fungi Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus flavus from the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi along with two [...] Read more.
Culex pipiens mosquitoes are vectors to many viruses and can transmit diseases such as filariasis and avian malaria. The present study evaluated the larvicidal activity of marine-derived endophytic fungi Aspergillus nomius and Aspergillus flavus from the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi along with two known cyclodepsipeptide compounds, scopularide A (1) and B (2), isolated from A. flavus extract, against third-instar larvae of C. pipiens, using distilled water as a negative control and toosenedanin as a positive control. The structures of the isolated compounds were confirmed by various spectroscopic analyses. The lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) were calculated by probit analysis. Scopularide A was the most potent after 96 h treatment, with LC50 and LC90 values of 58.96 and 994.31 ppm, respectively, and with 82.66% mortality at a concentration of 300 ppm. To unravel the biochemical mechanism of the tested extracts and compounds, their effects against protease, chitinase, phenoloxidases and lipase enzymes from the whole-body tissue of C. pipiens were evaluated after 72 h treatment at LC50 dose. Superior activity was observed for A. flavus extract against all tested enzymes. A molecular docking study was conducted for scopularide A and B on the four tested enzymes, to further verify the observed activity. Results revealed good binding affinities for both compounds as compared to the docked ligands, mainly via a number of hydrogen bonds. This was the first study to report the isolation of endophytic fungi A. flavus and A. nomius from the marine soft coral S. ehrenbergi. The endophytic fungal extract of A. flavus was found to be a promising source for a natural larvicidal agent against C. pipiens populations. Full article
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Review
The Role of Seawater and Saline Solutions in Treatment of Upper Respiratory Conditions
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 330; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050330 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 656
Abstract
The history of saline nasal irrigation (SNI) is indeed a long one, beginning from the ancient Ayurvedic practices and gaining a foothold in the west at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, there is a growing number of papers covering the effects [...] Read more.
The history of saline nasal irrigation (SNI) is indeed a long one, beginning from the ancient Ayurvedic practices and gaining a foothold in the west at the beginning of the 20th century. Today, there is a growing number of papers covering the effects of SNI, from in vitro studies to randomized clinical trials and literature overviews. Based on the recommendations of most of the European and American professional associations, seawater, alone or in combination with other preparations, has its place in the treatment of numerous conditions of the upper respiratory tract (URT), primarily chronic (rhino)sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, acute URT infections and postoperative recovery. Additionally, taking into account its multiple mechanisms of action and mounting evidence from recent studies, locally applied seawater preparations may have an important role in the prevention of viral and bacterial infections of the URT. In this review we discuss results published in the past years focusing on seawater preparations and their use in clinical and everyday conditions, since such products provide the benefits of additional ions vs. saline, have an excellent safety profile and are recommended by most professional associations in the field of otorhinolaryngology. Full article
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Review
A Medicinal Halophyte Ipomoea pes-caprae (Linn.) R. Br.: A Review of Its Botany, Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Bioactivity
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 329; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050329 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 585
Abstract
Ipomoea pes-caprae (Linn.) R. Br. (Convolvulaceae) is a halophytic plant that favorably grows in tropical and subtropical countries in Asia, America, Africa, and Australia. Even though this plant is considered a pan-tropical plant, I. pes-caprae has been found to occur in inland habitats [...] Read more.
Ipomoea pes-caprae (Linn.) R. Br. (Convolvulaceae) is a halophytic plant that favorably grows in tropical and subtropical countries in Asia, America, Africa, and Australia. Even though this plant is considered a pan-tropical plant, I. pes-caprae has been found to occur in inland habitats and coasts of wider areas, such as Spain, Anguilla, South Africa, and Marshall Island, either through a purposeful introduction, accidentally by dispersal, or by spreading due to climate change. The plant parts are used in traditional medicine for treating a wide range of diseases, such as inflammation, gastrointestinal disorders, pain, and hypertension. Previous phytochemical analyses of the plant have revealed pharmacologically active components, such as alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, and flavonoids. These phytoconstituents are responsible for the wide range of biological activities possessed by I. pes-caprae plant parts and extracts. This review arranges the previous reports on the botany, distribution, traditional uses, chemical constituents, and biological activities of I. pes-caprae to facilitate further studies that would lead to the discovery of novel bioactive natural products from this halophyte. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Halophytes)
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Article
An Octopus-Derived Peptide with Antidiuretic Activity in Rats
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 328; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050328 - 17 May 2022
Viewed by 654
Abstract
Discovering new drug candidates with high efficacy and few side effects is a major challenge in new drug development. The two evolutionarily related peptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are known to be associated with a variety of physiological and psychological processes [...] Read more.
Discovering new drug candidates with high efficacy and few side effects is a major challenge in new drug development. The two evolutionarily related peptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are known to be associated with a variety of physiological and psychological processes via the association of OXT with three types of AVP receptors. Over decades, many synthetic analogs of these peptides have been designed and tested for therapeutic applications; however, only a few studies of their natural analogs have been performed. In this study, we investigated the bioactivity and usefulness of two natural OXT/AVP analogs that originate from the marine invertebrate Octopus vulgaris, named octopressin (OTP) and cephalotocin (CPT). By measuring the intracellular Ca2+ or cyclic AMP increase in each OXT/AVP receptor subtype–overexpressing cell, we found that CPT, but not OTP, acts as a selective agonist of human AVP type 1b and 2 receptors. This behavior is reminiscent of desmopressin, the most widely prescribed antidiuretic drug in the world. Similar to the case for desmopressin, a single intravenous tail injection of CPT into Sprague-Dawley rats reduced urine output and increased urinary osmolality. In conclusion, we suggest that CPT has a significant antidiuretic effect and that CPT might be beneficial for treating urological conditions such as nocturia, enuresis, and diabetes insipidus. Full article
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Review
Humic Substances as Microalgal Biostimulants—Implications for Microalgal Biotechnology
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 327; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050327 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Humic substances (HS) act as biostimulants for terrestrial photosynthetic organisms. Their effects on plants are related to specific HS features: pH and redox buffering activities, (pseudo)emulsifying and surfactant characteristics, capacity to bind metallic ions and to encapsulate labile hydrophobic molecules, ability to adsorb [...] Read more.
Humic substances (HS) act as biostimulants for terrestrial photosynthetic organisms. Their effects on plants are related to specific HS features: pH and redox buffering activities, (pseudo)emulsifying and surfactant characteristics, capacity to bind metallic ions and to encapsulate labile hydrophobic molecules, ability to adsorb to the wall structures of cells. The specific properties of HS result from the complexity of their supramolecular structure. This structure is more dynamic in aqueous solutions/suspensions than in soil, which enhances the specific characteristics of HS. Therefore, HS effects on microalgae are more pronounced than on terrestrial plants. The reported HS effects on microalgae include increased ionic nutrient availability, improved protection against abiotic stress, including against various chemical pollutants and ionic species of potentially toxic elements, higher accumulation of value-added ingredients, and enhanced bio-flocculation. These HS effects are similar to those on terrestrial plants and could be considered microalgal biostimulant effects. Such biostimulant effects are underutilized in current microalgal biotechnology. This review presents knowledge related to interactions between microalgae and humic substances and analyzes the potential of HS to enhance the productivity and profitability of microalgal biotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology Applications of Microalgae)
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Article
Metabolic Profiling and In Vitro Assessment of the Biological Activities of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Penicillium chrysogenum “Endozoic of Cliona sp. Marine Sponge” from the Red Sea (Egypt)
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 326; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050326 - 15 May 2022
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Marine sponge-derived endozoic fungi have been gaining increasing importance as promising sources of numerous and unique bioactive compounds. This study investigates the phytochemical profile and biological activities of the ethyl acetate extract of Penicillium chrysogenum derived from Cliona sp. sponge. Thirty-six compounds were [...] Read more.
Marine sponge-derived endozoic fungi have been gaining increasing importance as promising sources of numerous and unique bioactive compounds. This study investigates the phytochemical profile and biological activities of the ethyl acetate extract of Penicillium chrysogenum derived from Cliona sp. sponge. Thirty-six compounds were tentatively identified from P. chrysogenum ethyl acetate extract along with the kojic acid (KA) isolation. The UPLC-ESI-MS/MS positive ionization mode was used to analyze and identify the extract constituents while 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy were used for kojic acid (KA) structure confirmation. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities were assessed in vitro. Both the extract and kojic acid showed potent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MIC 250 ± 0.82 µg/mL. Interestingly, the extract showed strong antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC 93.75 ± 0.55 and 19.53 ± 0.48 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, KA showed the same potency against Fusarium oxysporum and Cryptococcus neoformans with MIC 39.06 ± 0.85 and 39.06 ± 0.98 µg/mL, respectively. Ultimately, KA showed strong antioxidant activity with IC50 33.7 ± 0.8 µg/mL. Moreover, the extract and KA showed strong cytotoxic activity against colon carcinoma (with IC50 22.6 ± 0.8 and 23.4 ± 1.4 µg/mL, respectively) and human larynx carcinoma (with equal IC50 30.8 ± 1.3 and ± 2.1 µg/mL, respectively), respectively. The current study represents the first insights into the phytochemical profile and biological properties of P. chrysoenum ethyl acetate extract, which could be a promising source of valuable secondary metabolites with potent biological potentials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Compounds and Research of the Middle East)
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Article
Novel Antioxidant Collagen Peptides of Siberian Sturgeon (Acipenserbaerii) Cartilages: The Preparation, Characterization, and Cytoprotection of H2O2-Damaged Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs)
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 325; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050325 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 1715
Abstract
For making full use of aquatic by-products to produce high value-added products, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) cartilages were degreased, mineralized, and separately hydrolyzed by five kinds of proteases. The collagen hydrolysate (SCH) generated by Alcalase showed the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·) [...] Read more.
For making full use of aquatic by-products to produce high value-added products, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) cartilages were degreased, mineralized, and separately hydrolyzed by five kinds of proteases. The collagen hydrolysate (SCH) generated by Alcalase showed the strongest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·) and hydroxide radical (HO·) scavenging activity. Subsequently, thirteen antioxidant peptides (SCP1-SCP3) were isolated from SCH, and they were identified as GPTGED, GEPGEQ, GPEGPAG, VPPQD, GLEDHA, GDRGAEG, PRGFRGPV, GEYGFE, GFIGFNG, PSVSLT, IELFPGLP, LRGEAGL, and RGEPGL with molecular weights of 574.55, 615.60, 583.60, 554.60, 640.64, 660.64, 885.04, 700.70, 710.79, 602.67, 942.12, 714.82, and 627.70 Da, respectively. GEYGFE, PSVSLT, and IELFPGLP showed the highest scavenging activity on DPPH· (EC50: 1.27, 1.05, and 1.38 mg/mL, respectively) and HO· (EC50: 1.16, 0.97, and 1.63 mg/mL, respectively), inhibiting capability of lipid peroxidation, and protective functions on H2O2-damaged plasmid DNA. More importantly, GEYGFE, PSVSLT, and IELFPGLP displayed significant cytoprotection on HUVECs against H2O2 injury by regulating the endogenous antioxidant enzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) to decrease the contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Therefore, the research provided better technical assistance for a higher-value utilization of Siberian sturgeon cartilages and the thirteen isolated peptides—especially GEYGFE, PSVSLT, and IELFPGLP—which may serve as antioxidant additives for generating health-prone products to treat chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Peptides—Structure, Function, and Application)
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Article
The Impact of Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents and Extraction Method on the Co-Extraction of Trace Metals from Fucus vesiculosus
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 324; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050324 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 615
Abstract
In recent years, natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have been widely investigated for the extraction of food and medicinal plants as well as seaweeds. However, the ability of NADES for trace elements co-extraction from natural sources is not well investigated. The aim of [...] Read more.
In recent years, natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have been widely investigated for the extraction of food and medicinal plants as well as seaweeds. However, the ability of NADES for trace elements co-extraction from natural sources is not well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of common NADES for trace elements co-extraction from Fucus vesiculosus. All of the tested NADES did not recover As and Co (concentration <LOQ). Moreover, all of the tested NADES provided a low recovery (<9%) of Ba, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Sr, and Zn. The method of extraction had not shown a statistically significant effect on the co-extraction of all elements (excluding Ba and Ca). In contrast, the water content in NADES was significantly affected on the recovery of Ba, Ca, Mg, Mn, Sr, and Zn. The recovery of Al and Cr was relatively high and considerably varied (from 1.5 to 59.9%). NADES comprising lactic acid:glucose:H2O (5:3:1) provided the lowest contents of all elements, and the highest extracted amounts were obtained employing water contents of 60–80%. The calculated daily intake of all the elements contained in NADES extracts were less than the daily dose risk estimators. The hazard quotients, hazard indexes, and carcinogenic risk calculated for all trace elements and their combination were considerably less than 1. This evidences no health risk, and carcinogenic risk after topical application of all studied NADES. For the first time, the results of the current study demonstrated that NADES extracts of F. vesiculosus contain a lower amount of trace metals and are safer than the extracts obtained with water and 70% acetone. This indicates a significant advantage for NADES compared with the other solvents. Full article
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Article
Effects of Formulation on the Palatability and Efficacy of In-Feed Praziquantel Medications for Marine Finfish Aquaculture
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 323; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050323 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 570
Abstract
Praziquantel (PZQ) provides an effective treatment against monogenean parasitic infestations in finfish. However, its use as an in-feed treatment is challenging due to palatability issues. In this study, five formulations of PZQ beads (1–4 mm) were developed using marine-based polymers, with allicin added [...] Read more.
Praziquantel (PZQ) provides an effective treatment against monogenean parasitic infestations in finfish. However, its use as an in-feed treatment is challenging due to palatability issues. In this study, five formulations of PZQ beads (1–4 mm) were developed using marine-based polymers, with allicin added as a flavouring agent. All formulations attained PZQ loading rates ≥74% w/w, and the beads were successfully incorporated into fish feed pellets at an active dietary inclusion level of 10 g/kg. When tested for palatability and digestibility in small yellowtail kingfish, the PZQ-loaded beads produced with alginate-chitosan, alginate-Cremophor® RH40, and agar as carriers resulted in high consumption rates of 99–100% with no digesta or evidence of beads in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of fish fed with diets containing either formulation. Two formulations produced using chitosan-based carriers resulted in lower consumption rates of 68–75%, with undigested and partly digested beads found in the fish GIT 3 h post feeding. The PZQ-loaded alginate-chitosan and agar beads also showed good palatability in large (≥2 kg) yellowtail kingfish infected with gill parasites and were efficacious in removing the parasites from the fish, achieving >90% reduction in mean abundance relative to control fish (p < 0.001). The two effective formulations were stable upon storage at ambient temperature for up to 18 months, showing residual drug content >90% compared with baseline levels. Overall, the palatability, efficacy and stability data collected from this study suggest that these two PZQ particulate formulations have potential applications as in-feed anti-parasitic medications for the yellowtail kingfish farming industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alginate-Based Biomaterials and Drug Delivery)
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Article
Homo/Hetero-Dimers of Aromatic Bisabolane Sesquiterpenoids with Neuroprotective Activity from the Fungus Aspergillus versicolor A18 from South China Sea
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 322; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050322 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 1849
Abstract
Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extracts of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor A18 has led to the isolation of 11 homo/hetero-dimers of aromatic bisabolane sesquiterpenoids including eight diphenyl ether-coupled aromatic bisabolanes (1a/1b and 510) and three [...] Read more.
Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extracts of the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus versicolor A18 has led to the isolation of 11 homo/hetero-dimers of aromatic bisabolane sesquiterpenoids including eight diphenyl ether-coupled aromatic bisabolanes (1a/1b and 510) and three homodimers (24), together with their monomers including three aromatic bisabolanes (1113) and two diphenyl ethers (14 and 15). Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HRESIMS, 1D/2D NMR, calculated ECD, and the optical rotatory data. Among the four new compounds, (+/−)-asperbisabol A (1a/1b), asperbisabol B (2), and asperbisabol C (3), the enantiomers 1a and 1b represent an unprecedented skeleton of diphenyl ether-coupled aromatic bisabolane sesquiterpenoids with a spiroketal core moiety. The neuroprotective effects of selected compounds against sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced injury were evaluated in PC12 cells by the MTT assay. Five compounds (1a, 6, and 810) showed remarkable neuroprotective activities at 10 μM, being more active than the positive control edaravone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from the Deep-Sea-Derived Microorganisms)
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Article
Taxonomic and Bioactivity Characterizations of Mameliella alba Strain LZ-28 Isolated from Highly Toxic Marine Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella LZT09
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 321; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050321 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 616
Abstract
Microalgae host varied microbial consortium harboring cross-kingdom interactions with fundamental ecological significance in aquatic ecosystems. Revealing the complex biofunctions of the cultivable bacteria of phycosphere microbiota is one vital basis for deeply understanding the mechanisms governing these dynamic associations. In this study, a [...] Read more.
Microalgae host varied microbial consortium harboring cross-kingdom interactions with fundamental ecological significance in aquatic ecosystems. Revealing the complex biofunctions of the cultivable bacteria of phycosphere microbiota is one vital basis for deeply understanding the mechanisms governing these dynamic associations. In this study, a new light-yellow pigmented bacterial strain LZ-28 was isolated from the highly-toxic and harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella LZT09. Collective phenotypic and genotypic profiles were obtained to confidently identify this strain as a new Mameliellaalba member. Comparative genomic analysis showed that strain LZ-28 shared highly similar functional features with other four marine algae-derived M. alba strains in spite of their distinctive isolation sources. Based on the bioactivity assaying, the mutual growth-promoting effects between bacterial strain LZ-28 and algal strain LZT09 were observed. After the culture conditions were optimized, strain LZ-28 demonstrated an extraordinary production ability for its bioflocculanting exopolysaccharides (EPS). Moreover, the portions of two monosaccharides glucose and fucose of the EPS were found to positively contribute to the bioflocculanting capacity. Therefore, the present study sheds light on the similar genomic features among the selected M. alba strains, and it also reveals the potential pharmaceutical, environmental and biotechnological implications of active EPS produced by this new Mameliella alba strain LZ-28 recovered from toxic bloom-forming marine dinoflagellate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Glycomics)
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Review
Application of MS-Based Metabolomic Approaches in Analysis of Starfish and Sea Cucumber Bioactive Compounds
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 320; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050320 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 684
Abstract
Today, marine natural products are considered one of the main sources of compounds for drug development. Starfish and sea cucumbers are potential sources of natural products of pharmaceutical interest. Among their metabolites, polar steroids, triterpene glycosides, and polar lipids have attracted a great [...] Read more.
Today, marine natural products are considered one of the main sources of compounds for drug development. Starfish and sea cucumbers are potential sources of natural products of pharmaceutical interest. Among their metabolites, polar steroids, triterpene glycosides, and polar lipids have attracted a great deal of attention; however, studying these compounds by conventional methods is challenging. The application of modern MS-based approaches can help to obtain valuable information about such compounds. This review provides an up-to-date overview of MS-based applications for starfish and sea cucumber bioactive compounds analysis. While describing most characteristic features of MS-based approaches in the context of starfish and sea cucumber metabolites, including sample preparation and MS analysis steps, the present paper mainly focuses on the application of MS-based metabolic profiling of polar steroid compounds, triterpene glycosides, and lipids. The application of MS in metabolomics studies is also outlined. Full article
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Article
The Inhibitors of CDK4/6 from a Library of Marine Compound Database: A Pharmacophore, ADMET, Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Study
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 319; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050319 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 583
Abstract
Background: CDK4/6 (Cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6) are the key promoters of cell cycle transition from G1 phase to S phase. Thus, selective inhibition of CDK4/6 is a promising cancer treatment. Methods: A total of 52,765 marine natural products were screened for CDK4/6. To screen [...] Read more.
Background: CDK4/6 (Cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6) are the key promoters of cell cycle transition from G1 phase to S phase. Thus, selective inhibition of CDK4/6 is a promising cancer treatment. Methods: A total of 52,765 marine natural products were screened for CDK4/6. To screen out better natural compounds, pharmacophore models were first generated, then the absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity (ADMET) were tested, followed by molecular docking. Finally, molecular dynamics simulation was carried out to verify the binding characteristics of the selected compounds. Results: Eighty-seven marine small molecules were screened based on the pharmacophore model. Then, compounds 41369 and 50843 were selected according to the ADMET and molecular docking score for further kinetic simulation evaluation. Finally, through molecular dynamics analysis, it was confirmed that compound 50843 maintained a stable conformation with the target protein, so it has the opportunity to become an inhibitor of CDK4/6. Conclusion: Through structure-based pharmacophore modeling, ADMET, the molecular docking method and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, marine natural compound 50843 was proposed as a promising marine inhibitor of CDK4/6. Full article
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Article
In Vivo Nutritional Assessment of the Microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana and Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Capacity of Its Functional Extracts
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 318; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050318 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 794
Abstract
Nannochloropsis gaditana is a microalga with interesting nutritional and functional value due to its high content of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive compounds. However, the hardness of its cell wall prevents accessibility to these components. This work aimed to study the effect [...] Read more.
Nannochloropsis gaditana is a microalga with interesting nutritional and functional value due to its high content of protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and bioactive compounds. However, the hardness of its cell wall prevents accessibility to these components. This work aimed to study the effect of a treatment to increase the fragility of the cell wall on the bioavailability of its nutrients and functional compounds. The antioxidant and antiproliferative capacity of functional extracts from treated and untreated N. gaditana was assessed, and the profile of bioactive compounds was characterized. Furthermore, to study the effect of treatment on its nutrient availability and functional capacity, an in vivo experiment was carried out using a rat experimental model and a 20% dietary inclusion level of microalgae. Functional extracts from treated N. gaditana exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the untreated control. Furthermore, the treated microalga induced hypoglycemic action, higher nitrogen digestibility, and increased hepatic antioxidant activity. In conclusion, N. gaditana has interesting hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory potential, thus proving itself an ideal functional food candidate, especially if the microalga is treated to increase the fragility of its cell wall before consumption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro and In Vivo Approaches to Study Potential Marine Drugs II)
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Review
Bioactive Peptides from Algae: Traditional and Novel Generation Strategies, Structure-Function Relationships, and Bioinformatics as Predictive Tools for Bioactivity
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 317; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050317 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 1516
Abstract
Over the last decade, algae have been explored as alternative and sustainable protein sources for a balanced diet and more recently, as a potential source of algal-derived bioactive peptides with potential health benefits. This review will focus on the emerging processes for the [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, algae have been explored as alternative and sustainable protein sources for a balanced diet and more recently, as a potential source of algal-derived bioactive peptides with potential health benefits. This review will focus on the emerging processes for the generation and isolation of bioactive peptides or cryptides from algae, including: (1) pre-treatments of algae for the extraction of protein by physical and biochemical methods; and (2) methods for the generation of bioactive including enzymatic hydrolysis and other emerging methods. To date, the main biological properties of the peptides identified from algae, including anti-hypertensive, antioxidant and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic effects (for this review, anti-proliferative/cytotoxic will be referred to by the term anti-cancer), assayed in vitro and/or in vivo, will also be summarized emphasizing the structure–function relationship and mechanism of action of these peptides. Moreover, the use of in silico methods, such as quantitative structural activity relationships (QSAR) and molecular docking for the identification of specific peptides of bioactive interest from hydrolysates will be described in detail together with the main challenges and opportunities to exploit algae as a source of bioactive peptides. Full article
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Article
Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Signaling by Soft Coral-Derived Prostaglandin A2 in RAW264.7 Cells
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 316; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050316 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and causes inflammatory diseases. We searched MeOH extracts of collected marine organisms for inhibitors of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells and identified prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) [...] Read more.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and causes inflammatory diseases. We searched MeOH extracts of collected marine organisms for inhibitors of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells and identified prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) as an active compound from the MeOH extract of the soft coral Lobophytum sp. PGA2 inhibited the production of NO and reduced the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Although short preincubation with PGA2 did not inhibit LPS-induced degradation and resynthesis of IκBα, the suppressive effect of PGA2 was observed only after a prolonged incubation period prior to LPS treatment. In addition, PGA2-inhibited NO production was negated by the addition of the EP4 antagonist L161982. Thus, PGA2 was identified as an inhibitor of LPS-induced inflammatory signaling in RAW264.7 cells. Full article
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Article
BDDE-Inspired Chalcone Derivatives to Fight Bacterial and Fungal Infections
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 315; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050315 - 08 May 2022
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
The growing number of infectious diseases around the world threatens the effective response of antibiotics, contributing to the increase in antibiotic resistance seen as a global health problem. Currently, one of the main challenges in antimicrobial drug discovery is the search for new [...] Read more.
The growing number of infectious diseases around the world threatens the effective response of antibiotics, contributing to the increase in antibiotic resistance seen as a global health problem. Currently, one of the main challenges in antimicrobial drug discovery is the search for new compounds that not only exhibit antimicrobial activity, but can also potentiate the antimicrobial activity and revert antibiotics’ resistance, through the interference with several mechanisms, including the inhibition of efflux pumps (EPs) and biofilm formation. Inspired by macroalgae brominated bromophenol BDDE with antimicrobial activity, a series of 18 chalcone derivatives, including seven chalcones (915), six dihydrochalcones (1618, and 2224) and five diarylpropanes (1921, and 25 and 26), was prepared and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity and potential to fight antibiotic resistance. Among them, chalcones 13 and 14 showed promising antifungal activity against the dermatophyte clinical strain of Trichophyton rubrum, and all compounds reversed the resistance to vancomycin in Enterococcus faecalis B3/101, with 9, 14, and 24 able to cause a four-fold decrease in the MIC of vancomycin against this strain. Compounds 1724 displayed inhibition of EPs and the formation of biofilm by S. aureus 272123, suggesting that these compounds are inhibiting the EPs responsible for the extrusion of molecules involved in biofilm-related mechanisms. Interestingly, compounds 1724 did not show cytotoxicity in mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines (NIH/3T3). Overall, the results obtained suggest the potential of dihydrochalcones 1618 and 2224, and diarylpropanes 1921, 25 and 26, as hits for bacterial EPs inhibition, as they are effective in the inhibition of EPs, but present other features that are important in this matter, such as the lack of antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds Derived from Marine Macrophytes)
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Review
Marine Biopolymers as Bioactive Functional Ingredients of Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Applications
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 314; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050314 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Marine biopolymers, abundantly present in seaweeds and marine animals, feature diverse structures and functionalities, and possess a wide range of beneficial biological activities. Characterized by high biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well as unique physicochemical properties, marine biopolymers are attracting a constantly increasing interest [...] Read more.
Marine biopolymers, abundantly present in seaweeds and marine animals, feature diverse structures and functionalities, and possess a wide range of beneficial biological activities. Characterized by high biocompatibility and biodegradability, as well as unique physicochemical properties, marine biopolymers are attracting a constantly increasing interest for the development of advanced systems for applications in the biomedical field. The development of electrospinning offers an innovative technological platform for the production of nonwoven nanofibrous scaffolds with increased surface area, high encapsulation efficacy, intrinsic interconnectivity, and structural analogy to the natural extracellular matrix. Marine biopolymer-based electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds with multifunctional characteristics and tunable mechanical properties now attract significant attention for biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, and wound healing. The present review, covering the literature up to the end of 2021, highlights the advancements in the development of marine biopolymer-based electrospun nanofibers for their utilization as cell proliferation scaffolds, bioadhesives, release modifiers, and wound dressings. Full article
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Article
Balenine, Imidazole Dipeptide Promotes Skeletal Muscle Regeneration by Regulating Phagocytosis Properties of Immune Cells
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 313; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050313 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Balenine is one of the endogenous imidazole dipeptides derived from marine products. It is composed of beta-alanine and 3-methyl-L-histidine, which exist mainly in the muscles of marine organisms. The physiological functions of dietary balenine are not well-known. In this study, we investigated whether [...] Read more.
Balenine is one of the endogenous imidazole dipeptides derived from marine products. It is composed of beta-alanine and 3-methyl-L-histidine, which exist mainly in the muscles of marine organisms. The physiological functions of dietary balenine are not well-known. In this study, we investigated whether the supplementation of dietary balenine was associated with muscle function in a cardiotoxin-indued muscle degeneration/regeneration model. Through morphological observation, we found that the supplementation of balenine-enriched extract promoted the regeneration stage. In addition, the expression of regeneration-related myogenic marker genes, such as paired box protein 7, MyoD1, myogenin, and Myh3, in a group of mice fed a balenine-enriched extract diet was higher than that in a group fed a normal diet. Moreover, the supplementation of balenine-enriched extract promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines at the degeneration stage. Interestingly, phagocytic activity in the balenine group was significantly higher than that in the control group in vitro. These results suggest that balenine may promote the progress of muscle regeneration by increasing the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Full article
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Article
Monkfish Peptides Mitigate High Fat Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis in Mice
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 312; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050312 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 709
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic metabolic syndrome usually accompanied by fatty degeneration and functional impairment. The aim of the study was to determine whether monkfish peptides (LPs) could ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its underlying mechanisms. NAFLD was induced [...] Read more.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic metabolic syndrome usually accompanied by fatty degeneration and functional impairment. The aim of the study was to determine whether monkfish peptides (LPs) could ameliorate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its underlying mechanisms. NAFLD was induced in mice by giving them an HFD for eight weeks, after which LPs were administered in various dosages. In comparison to the HFD control group: body weight in the LP-treated groups decreased by 23–28%; triacylglycerol levels in the blood decreased by 16–35%; and low-density lipoproteins levels in the blood decreased by 23–51%. Additionally, we found that LPs elevated the activity of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and reduced the inflammatory reactions within fatty liver tissue. Investigating the effect on metabolic pathways, we found that in LP-treated mice: the levels of phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK), and phospho-acetyl CoA carboxylase (p-ACC) in the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway were up-regulated and the levels of downstream sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP-1) were down-regulated; lipid oxidation increased and free fatty acid (FFA) accumulation decreased (revealed by the increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) and the decreased fatty acid synthase (FASN) expression, respectively); the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathway was activated; and the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nicotinamide quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) were increased. Overall, all these findings demonstrated that LPs can improve the antioxidant capacity of liver to alleviate NAFLD progression mainly through modulating the AMPK and Nrf2 pathways, and thus it could be considered as an effective candidate in the treatment of human NAFLD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Bioactive Peptides—Structure, Function, and Application)
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Editorial
Chasing Chances in a Changing Sea
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 311; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050311 - 03 May 2022
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Bioactive marine natural products (BMNPs) of interest for applications as drugs, antimicrobials, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, or antifoulants, are often present in traces in producer organisms and often occur in threatened or endangered species, or in organisms playing key ecological roles [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Invasive Species and Their Bioactive Metabolites)
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Review
Biodegradation and Prospect of Polysaccharide from Crustaceans
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 310; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050310 - 02 May 2022
Viewed by 770
Abstract
Marine crustacean waste has not been fully utilized and is a rich source of chitin. Enzymatic degradation has attracted the wide attention of researchers due to its unique biocatalytic ability to protect the environment. Chitosan (CTS) and its derivative chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs) with [...] Read more.
Marine crustacean waste has not been fully utilized and is a rich source of chitin. Enzymatic degradation has attracted the wide attention of researchers due to its unique biocatalytic ability to protect the environment. Chitosan (CTS) and its derivative chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs) with various biological activities can be obtained by the enzymatic degradation of chitin. Many studies have shown that chitosan and its derivatives, chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs), have beneficial properties, including lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities, and have important application value in the medical treatment field, the food industry and agriculture. In this review, we describe the classification, biochemical characteristics and catalytic mechanisms of the major degrading enzymes: chitinases, chitin deacetylases (CDAs) and chitosanases. We also introduced the technology for enzymatic design and modification and proposed the current problems and development trends of enzymatic degradation of chitin polysaccharides. The discussion on the characteristics and catalytic mechanism of chitosan-degrading enzymes will help to develop new types of hydrolases by various biotechnology methods and promote their application in chitosan. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides 2.0)
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Article
Valorization of Side Stream Products from Sea Cage Fattened Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thynnus): Production and In Vitro Bioactivity Evaluation of Enriched ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Mar. Drugs 2022, 20(5), 309; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/md20050309 - 30 Apr 2022
Viewed by 785
Abstract
The valorization of side streams from fishery and aquaculture value-chains is a valuable solution to address one of the challenges of the circular economy: turning wastes into profit. Side streams produced after filleting of sea cage fattened bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) [...] Read more.
The valorization of side streams from fishery and aquaculture value-chains is a valuable solution to address one of the challenges of the circular economy: turning wastes into profit. Side streams produced after filleting of sea cage fattened bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) were analyzed for proximate composition and fatty acid profile to evaluate the possibility of producing tuna oil (TO) as a valuable source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and testing its bioactivity in vitro. Ethyl esters of total fatty acids (TFA), obtained from TO, were pre-enriched by urea complexation (PUFA-Ue) and then enriched by short path distillation (SPD) up to almost 85% of the PUFA fraction (PUFA-SPe). The bioactivity of TFA, PUFA-SPe, and ethyl esters of depleted PUFA (PUFA-SPd) were tested in vitro, through analysis of lipid metabolism genes, in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) fibroblast cell line (SAF-1) exposed to oils. TFA and PUFA-SPd upregulated transcription factors (pparβ and pparγ) and lipid metabolism-related genes (D6D, fas, fabp, fatp1, and cd36), indicating the promotion of adipogenesis. PUFA-SPe treated cells were similar to control. PUFA-SPe extracted from farmed bluefin tuna side streams could be utilized in fish feed formulations to prevent excessive fat deposition, contributing to improving both the sustainability of aquaculture and the quality of its products. Full article
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