Next Article in Journal
Recurrent Renal Colic in a Patient with Munchausen Syndrome
Next Article in Special Issue
Development of Ahmedabad’s Air Information and Response (AIR) Plan to Protect Public Health
Previous Article in Journal
Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Health Risk Reductions of Pesticide Use in China: A Contingent Valuation Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in PM2.5 in Zhejiang Province
Article

Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje

1
The UNEP-DTU Partnership, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, UN City, Marmorvej 51, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark
2
WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Platz der Vereinten Nationen 1, 53113 Bonn, Germany
3
SERC, Hillsborough, NJ 08844, USA
4
Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
5
Institute of Public Health, 50 Divizija 6, 1000 Skopje, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 626; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15040626
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change, Extreme Temperatures, Air Pollution, and Health)
Background: Urban outdoor air pollution, especially particulate matter, remains a major environmental health problem in Skopje, the capital of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Despite the documented high levels of pollution in the city, the published evidence on its health impacts is as yet scarce. Methods: we obtained, cleaned, and validated Particulate Matter (PM) concentration data from five air quality monitoring stations in the Skopje metropolitan area, applied relevant concentration-response functions, and evaluated health impacts against two theoretical policy scenarios. We then calculated the burden of disease attributable to PM and calculated the societal cost due to attributable mortality. Results: In 2012, long-term exposure to PM2.5 (49.2 μg/m3) caused an estimated 1199 premature deaths (CI95% 821–1519). The social cost of the predicted premature mortality in 2012 due to air pollution was estimated at between 570 and 1470 million euros. Moreover, PM2.5 was also estimated to be responsible for 547 hospital admissions (CI95% 104–977) from cardiovascular diseases, and 937 admissions (CI95% 937–1869) for respiratory disease that year. Reducing PM2.5 levels to the EU limit (25 μg/m3) could have averted an estimated 45% of PM-attributable mortality, while achieving the WHO Air Quality Guidelines (10 μg/m3) could have averted an estimated 77% of PM-attributable mortality. Both scenarios would also attain significant reductions in attributable respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions. Conclusions: Besides its health impacts in terms of increased premature mortality and hospitalizations, air pollution entails significant economic costs to the population of Skopje. Reductions in PM2.5 concentrations could provide substantial health and economic gains to the city. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; Skopje; the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; particulate matter; economic evaluation; burden of disease air pollution; Skopje; the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia; particulate matter; economic evaluation; burden of disease
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Martinez, G.S.; Spadaro, J.V.; Chapizanis, D.; Kendrovski, V.; Kochubovski, M.; Mudu, P. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 626. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15040626

AMA Style

Martinez GS, Spadaro JV, Chapizanis D, Kendrovski V, Kochubovski M, Mudu P. Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(4):626. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15040626

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martinez, Gerardo S., Joseph V. Spadaro, Dimitris Chapizanis, Vladimir Kendrovski, Mihail Kochubovski, and Pierpaolo Mudu. 2018. "Health Impacts and Economic Costs of Air Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Skopje" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 4: 626. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph15040626

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop