Next Article in Journal
Oxidative/Antioxidative Status in Patients after Myocardial Infarction and in Those without Cardiovascular Event Depending on Anthropometric Factors Defining Body Weight
Next Article in Special Issue
A Dynamic Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Urban Expansion and Pollutant Emissions in Fujian Province
Previous Article in Journal
Diagnose-Specific Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns at Otorhinolaryngology Inpatient Departments of Two Private Sector Healthcare Facilities in Central India: A Five-Year Observational Study
Article

Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Evaluation of Soil Iron in the Middle Hanjiang River

1
State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulics in Northwest Arid Region, Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an 710048, China
2
Key Laboratory of National Forestry Administration on Ecological Hydrology and Disaster Prevention in Arid Regions, Xi’an 710048, China
3
Institute of Water Resources for Pastoral Area, Ministry of Water Resources, Huhhot 010020, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4075; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16214075
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS and Spatial Modelling for Environmental Epidemiology)
Soil iron has an important impact on the ecological environment and on crop growth. This study selected a typical small watershed basin in the middle reaches of the Han River (Yujiehe) at Ankang City and used geostatistical methods and kriging interpolation to analyze the spatial distribution and structure of soil iron content for different land uses and at different depths, using the single-factor pollution evaluation to evaluate the pollution degree of soil iron. The results showed that soil iron in the Yujie River basin decreased with increasing soil depth, with contents of 8.80 mg/kg, 5.52 mg/kg, and 4.92 mg/kg at depths A1 (0–20 cm), A2 (20–40 cm), and A3 (40–60 cm). According to the classification index of effective trace elements in soil, the average contents of soil iron at these three depths were between 4.5 and 10 mg/kg, which are all considered moderate values. The coefficients of variation of soil iron at the three soil depths were 59%, 75%, and 83%, all of which showed moderate spatial variability, and the coefficient of variation increased gradually with soil depth. With semi-variance calculated at the three soil depths, soil iron optimal theoretical models were all exponential models with nugget coefficients of 9.52%, 47.76%, and 33.93%, indicating that spatial correlation was very strong in the A1 layer and moderate in the A2 and A3 layers. The spatial distribution of soil iron showed some variation in the study area, and the soil content was higher in the midwestern part in the A1 and A2 layers; however, in the A3 layer, the higher content was in the center and lower content was in the southern region. Correlations were significant between soil iron content on the one hand and land-use type and topographic factors on the other. The pollution indices of soil iron at the three soil depths under different land uses were all greater than 1.0, with the A1 layer in farmland being the worst, at 3.34. In the study area, using the background value of soil iron as an evaluation standard, the soil iron content of more than 65% of the Yujiehe region exceeded this standard. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil iron; geostatistical; spatial interpolation; pollution assessment soil iron; geostatistical; spatial interpolation; pollution assessment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, Y.; Li, P.; Xu, G.; Lu, K.; Wang, F.; Zhang, T.; Feng, Z. Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Evaluation of Soil Iron in the Middle Hanjiang River. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4075. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16214075

AMA Style

Cheng Y, Li P, Xu G, Lu K, Wang F, Zhang T, Feng Z. Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Evaluation of Soil Iron in the Middle Hanjiang River. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(21):4075. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16214075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cheng, Yuting, Peng Li, Guoce Xu, Kexin Lu, Feichao Wang, Tiegang Zhang, and Zhaohong Feng. 2019. "Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Evaluation of Soil Iron in the Middle Hanjiang River" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 21: 4075. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16214075

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop