Next Article in Journal
Spatial Statistics and Influencing Factors of the COVID-19 Epidemic at Both Prefecture and County Levels in Hubei Province, China
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel Procedure of Total Organic Carbon Analysis for Water Samples Containing Suspended Solids with Alkaline Extraction and Homogeneity Evaluation by Turbidity
Article

Estimated Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates the Impacts of Sarcopenia and Obesity on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver in Korean Adults

College of Sport Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3902; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113902
Received: 23 April 2020 / Revised: 28 May 2020 / Accepted: 29 May 2020 / Published: 31 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Public Health Statistics and Risk Assessment)
This population-based, cross-sectional study examined the preventive role of non-exercise-based estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) against the impacts of sarcopenia and obesity on the non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) in Korean adults. Data were obtained from the 2008–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (n = 14,015 Koreans aged ≥ 18 years, 64% women). eCRF was calculated with the age- and sex-specific algorithms, and classified as lower (lowest 25%), middle (middle 50%) and upper (highest 25%). Individuals were classified as optimal (i.e., the absence of both sarcopenia and obesity), sarcopenia (i.e., the presence of sarcopenia), obesity (i.e., the presence of obesity) or sarcopenic obesity (i.e., the coexistence of sarcopenia and obesity). Limited to the sarcopenia phenotype, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of NAFL was 2.2 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.5–3.1) for the lower eCRF, 1.6 (95% CI, 1.3–2.1) for the middle eCRF and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.4–3.1) for the upper eCRF, compared to the optimal phenotype. Limited to the obesity phenotype, the adjusted OR of NAFL was 2.9 (95% CI, 2.0–4.2) for the lower eCRF, 3.5 (95% CI, 2.7–4.6) for the middle eCRF and 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2–2.8) for the upper eCRF, compared to the optimal phenotype. Limited to the sarcopenic obesity phenotype, the adjusted OR of NAFL was 5.9 (95% CI, 4.3–8.2) for the lower eCRF, 4.2 (95% CI, 3.2–5.5) for the middle eCRF and 2.5 (95% CI, 1.5–4.1) for the upper eCRF, compared to the optimal phenotype. The current findings suggest that high eCRF attenuates the individual and synergistic impacts of sarcopenia and obesity on NAFL in Korean adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty liver disease; physical fitness; physical activity; sarcopenia; obesity fatty liver disease; physical fitness; physical activity; sarcopenia; obesity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, I.; Kim, J.; Kang, H. Estimated Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates the Impacts of Sarcopenia and Obesity on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver in Korean Adults. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3902. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113902

AMA Style

Lee I, Kim J, Kang H. Estimated Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates the Impacts of Sarcopenia and Obesity on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver in Korean Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(11):3902. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113902

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Inhwan, Jeonghyeon Kim, and Hyunsik Kang. 2020. "Estimated Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates the Impacts of Sarcopenia and Obesity on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver in Korean Adults" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 11: 3902. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17113902

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop