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Review

A Focused Review on the Maximal Exercise Responses in Hypo- and Normobaric Hypoxia: Divergent Oxygen Uptake and Ventilation Responses

1
Department of General and Surgical Intensive Care, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Institute of Mountain Emergency Medicine, Eurac Research, 39100 Bolzano, Italy
3
Institute of Sport Sciences, Synathlon, Uni-Centre, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
4
Postoperative Critical Care Unit, Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
5
Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
6
Austrian Society for Alpine and Mountain Medicine, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5239; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145239
Received: 14 May 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 20 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hypoxia and Exercise: Effects on Health and Performance)
The literature suggests that acute hypobaric (HH) and normobaric (NH) hypoxia exposure elicits different physiological responses. Only limited information is available on whether maximal cardiorespiratory exercise test outcomes, performed on either the treadmill or the cycle ergometer, are affected differently by NH and HH. A focused literature review was performed to identify relevant studies reporting cardiorespiratory responses in well-trained male athletes (individuals with a maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max > 50 mL/min/kg at sea level) to cycling or treadmill running in simulated acute HH or NH. Twenty-one studies were selected. The exercise tests in these studies were performed in HH (n = 90) or NH (n = 151) conditions, on a bicycle ergometer (n = 178) or on a treadmill (n = 63). Altitudes (simulated and terrestrial) varied between 2182 and 5400 m. Analyses (based on weighted group means) revealed that the decline in VO2max per 1000 m gain in altitude was more pronounced in acute NH vs. HH (−7.0 ± 1.4% vs. −5.6 ± 0.9%). Maximal minute ventilation (VEmax) increased in acute HH but decreased in NH with increasing simulated altitude (+1.9 ± 0.9% vs. −1.4 ± 1.8% per 1000 m gain in altitude). Treadmill running in HH caused larger decreases in arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate than ergometer cycling in acute HH, which was not the case in NH. These results indicate distinct differences between maximal cardiorespiratory responses to cycling and treadmill running in acute NH or HH. Such differences should be considered when interpreting exercise test results and/or monitoring athletic training. View Full-Text
Keywords: exercise testing; normobaric; hypobaric; maximal oxygen uptake; maximal minute ventilation exercise testing; normobaric; hypobaric; maximal oxygen uptake; maximal minute ventilation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Treml, B.; Gatterer, H.; Burtscher, J.; Kleinsasser, A.; Burtscher, M. A Focused Review on the Maximal Exercise Responses in Hypo- and Normobaric Hypoxia: Divergent Oxygen Uptake and Ventilation Responses. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5239. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145239

AMA Style

Treml B, Gatterer H, Burtscher J, Kleinsasser A, Burtscher M. A Focused Review on the Maximal Exercise Responses in Hypo- and Normobaric Hypoxia: Divergent Oxygen Uptake and Ventilation Responses. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(14):5239. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145239

Chicago/Turabian Style

Treml, Benedikt, Hannes Gatterer, Johannes Burtscher, Axel Kleinsasser, and Martin Burtscher. 2020. "A Focused Review on the Maximal Exercise Responses in Hypo- and Normobaric Hypoxia: Divergent Oxygen Uptake and Ventilation Responses" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 14: 5239. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17145239

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