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Assessing Drinking Water Quality at the Point of Collection and within Household Storage Containers in the Hilly Rural Areas of Mid and Far-Western Nepal

1
Department of Water Management, Delft University of Technology, 2628CD Delft, The Netherlands
2
Department of Water Supply, Sanitation and Environmental Engineering, IHE Delft Institute for Water Education, 2611 AX Delft, The Netherlands
3
Department of Sanitation, Water and Solid Waste for Development (Sandec), Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology-Eawag, CH-8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland
4
Helvetas Swiss Intercooperation Nepal, Jhamshikhel Dhobi Ghat, Lalitpur, GPO Box 688 Kathmandu, Nepal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072172
Received: 20 February 2020 / Revised: 20 March 2020 / Accepted: 21 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Analysis and Methods)
Accurate assessments of drinking water quality, household hygenic practices, and the mindset of the consumers are critical for developing effective water intervention strategies. This paper presents a microbial quality assessment of 512 samples from household water storage containers and 167 samples from points of collection (POC) in remote rural communities in the hilly area of western Nepal. We found that 81% of the stored drinking water samples (mean log10 of all samples = 1.16 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL, standard deviation (SD) = 0.84) and 68% of the POC samples (mean log10 of all samples = 0.57 CFU/100 mL, SD = 0.86) had detectable E. coli. The quality of stored water was significantly correlated with the quality at the POC, with the majority (63%) of paired samples showing a deterioration in quality post-collection. Locally applied household water treatment (HWT) methods did not effectively improve microbial water quality. Among all household sanitary inspection questions, only the presence of livestock near the water storage container was significantly correlated with its microbial contamination. Households’ perceptions of their drinking water quality were mostly influenced by the water’s visual appearance, and these perceptions in general motivated their use of HWT. Improving water quality within the distribution network and promoting safer water handling practices are proposed to reduce the health risk due to consumption of contaminated water in this setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; E. coli; sanitary inspection; household hygiene; hilly area; rural communities; Nepal water quality; E. coli; sanitary inspection; household hygiene; hilly area; rural communities; Nepal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Daniel, D.; Diener, A.; van de Vossenberg, J.; Bhatta, M.; Marks, S.J. Assessing Drinking Water Quality at the Point of Collection and within Household Storage Containers in the Hilly Rural Areas of Mid and Far-Western Nepal. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 2172. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072172

AMA Style

Daniel D, Diener A, van de Vossenberg J, Bhatta M, Marks SJ. Assessing Drinking Water Quality at the Point of Collection and within Household Storage Containers in the Hilly Rural Areas of Mid and Far-Western Nepal. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(7):2172. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072172

Chicago/Turabian Style

Daniel, D., Arnt Diener, Jack van de Vossenberg, Madan Bhatta, and Sara J. Marks 2020. "Assessing Drinking Water Quality at the Point of Collection and within Household Storage Containers in the Hilly Rural Areas of Mid and Far-Western Nepal" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 7: 2172. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17072172

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