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Article

Urban Green Spaces, Greenness Exposure and Species Richness in Residential Environments and Relations with Physical Activity and BMI in Portuguese Adolescents

1
Research Center in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure (CIAFEL), Faculty of Sports, University of Porto (FADEUP), Rua Dr. Placido Costa, 91, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
2
EPIUnit, Instituto de Saúde Pública da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Taipas 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
3
Laboratory for Integrative and Translational Research in Population Health (ITR), Rua das Taipas 135, 4050-600 Porto, Portugal
4
PAFS Research Group, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071 Toledo, Spain
5
Biomedical Research Networking Center on Frailty and Healthy Aging (CIBERFES), 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel J. Graham
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(12), 6588; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126588
Received: 1 April 2021 / Revised: 8 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 18 June 2021
Environmental factors play an important role in obesity-related behaviors. Evidence indicates significant associations between weight and urban green spaces in adults, but it is not clear whether this relationship applies to adolescents. Therefore, our aim was to determine the associations between urban green spaces, greenness exposure and species richness in residential environments with physical activity and body mass index. Sixty-two adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age answered a self-administered questionnaire, providing information on height, weight, age, sex and home address. Data on socioeconomic deprivation were obtained from the European Index of Deprivation for Small Portuguese Areas. Physical activity levels were assessed using accelerometers. Urban green space counts and the normalized difference vegetation index values were measured using buffers along the roads with distances of 300, 500, 1000 and 1500 m from each participant’s residence. To quantify the species richness, the species richness index was used. Linear regression models were fitted to analyze whether urban green spaces, exposure to green spaces and species richness counts for each distance were associated with physical activity and self-reported body mass index. We did not find significant associations between the independent variables and the probability of overweight or obesity. The relationship between environmental variables, adolescents’ physical activity and body weight seems to be complex and further studies may contribute to better understanding of the topic. View Full-Text
Keywords: overweight; pediatric obesity; physical activity; built environment; public green space; biodiversity overweight; pediatric obesity; physical activity; built environment; public green space; biodiversity
MDPI and ACS Style

Melo, J.; Ribeiro, A.I.; Aznar, S.; Pizarro, A.; Santos, M.P. Urban Green Spaces, Greenness Exposure and Species Richness in Residential Environments and Relations with Physical Activity and BMI in Portuguese Adolescents. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6588. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126588

AMA Style

Melo J, Ribeiro AI, Aznar S, Pizarro A, Santos MP. Urban Green Spaces, Greenness Exposure and Species Richness in Residential Environments and Relations with Physical Activity and BMI in Portuguese Adolescents. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(12):6588. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126588

Chicago/Turabian Style

Melo, Juliana, Ana I. Ribeiro, Susana Aznar, Andreia Pizarro, and Maria P. Santos 2021. "Urban Green Spaces, Greenness Exposure and Species Richness in Residential Environments and Relations with Physical Activity and BMI in Portuguese Adolescents" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 12: 6588. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18126588

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