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Article

Experiences and Interactions with the Healthcare System in Transgender and Non-Binary Patients in Austria: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study

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Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Centre for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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Department of Physical Medicine, Rehabilitation and Occupational Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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NTU Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham NG1 4FQ, UK
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Institute of Outcomes Research, Centre for Medical Statistics, Informatics and Intelligent Systems, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
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Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Cancer Care Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB T2S 3C3, Canada
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Departments of Oncology and Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
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Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dustin T. Duncan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6895; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136895
Received: 29 May 2021 / Revised: 15 June 2021 / Accepted: 24 June 2021 / Published: 27 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health and Well-Being in Vulnerable Communities)
Medical care of transgender and non-binary (TNB) patients if often a complex interdisciplinary effort involving a variety of healthcare workers (HCWs) and services. Physicians not only act as gatekeepers to routine or transitioning therapies but are also HCWs with the most intimate and time-intensive patient interaction, which influences TNB patients’ experiences and health behaviors and healthcare utilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the physician–patient relationship in a sample of TNB individuals within the Austrian healthcare system, and explore its associations with sociodemographic, health-, and identity-related characteristics. A cross-sectional study utilizing an 56-item online questionnaire, including the Patient-Doctor Relationship Questionnaire 9 (PDRQ-9), was carried out between June and October 2020. The study involved TNB individuals 18 or older, residing in Austria, and previously or currently undergoing medical transition. In total, 91 participants took part, of whom 33.0% and 25.3% self-identified as trans men and trans women, respectively, and 41.8% as non-binary. Among participants, 82.7% reported being in the process of medical transitioning, 58.1% perceived physicians as the most problematic HCWs, and 60.5% stated having never or rarely been taken seriously in medical settings. Non-binary participants showed significantly lower PDRQ-9 scores, reflecting a worse patient–physician relationship compared to trans male participants. TNB patients in Austria often report negative experiences based on their gender identity. Physicians should be aware of these interactions and reflect potentially harmful behavioral patterns in order to establish unbiased and trustful relations. View Full-Text
Keywords: healthcare utilization; trans; transgender; non-binary; gender-nonconforming; physician–patient relationship; health behavior healthcare utilization; trans; transgender; non-binary; gender-nonconforming; physician–patient relationship; health behavior
MDPI and ACS Style

Markovic, L.; McDermott, D.T.; Stefanac, S.; Seiler-Ramadas, R.; Iabloncsik, D.; Smith, L.; Yang, L.; Kirchheiner, K.; Crevenna, R.; Grabovac, I. Experiences and Interactions with the Healthcare System in Transgender and Non-Binary Patients in Austria: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6895. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136895

AMA Style

Markovic L, McDermott DT, Stefanac S, Seiler-Ramadas R, Iabloncsik D, Smith L, Yang L, Kirchheiner K, Crevenna R, Grabovac I. Experiences and Interactions with the Healthcare System in Transgender and Non-Binary Patients in Austria: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(13):6895. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136895

Chicago/Turabian Style

Markovic, Lovro, Daragh T. McDermott, Sinisa Stefanac, Radhika Seiler-Ramadas, Darina Iabloncsik, Lee Smith, Lin Yang, Kathrin Kirchheiner, Richard Crevenna, and Igor Grabovac. 2021. "Experiences and Interactions with the Healthcare System in Transgender and Non-Binary Patients in Austria: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 13: 6895. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18136895

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