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The Role of Motor Imagery in Predicting Motor Skills in Young Male Soccer Players
Systematic Review

Effect of Motor Imagery Training on Motor Learning in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Reha Rheinfelden, Research Department, 4310 Rheinfelden, Switzerland
2
Department of Engineering and Information Technology, Bern University of Applied Sciences, 3400 Burgdorf, Switzerland
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Department of Health Professions, Bern University of Applied Science, 3007 Bern, Switzerland
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Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, University of Basel, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
5
Department of Medicine D, Division of General Internal Medicine, Nephrology, and Rheumatology, University Hospital Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Massimiliano Conson and Tasha Stanton
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9467; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18189467
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 22 August 2021 / Accepted: 23 August 2021 / Published: 8 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Translational Aspects of Motor Imagery)
Background: There is an urgent need to systematically analyze the growing body of literature on the effect of motor imagery (MI) training in children and adolescents. Methods: Seven databases and clinicaltrials.gov were searched. Two reviewers independently screened references and full texts, and extracted data (studies’ methodology, MI elements, temporal parameters). Two studies were meta-analyzed providing the standard mean difference (SDM). Selected studies were evaluated with the risk of bias (RoB) and GRADE tools. Results: A total of 7238 references were retrieved. The sample size of the 22 included studies, published between 1995 and 2021, ranged from 18 to 136 participants, totaling 934 (nine to 18 years). Studies included healthy pupils, mentally retarded adolescents, children with motor coordination difficulties or with mild mental disabilities. The motor learning tasks focused on upper, lower and whole body movements. SMDs for the primary outcome of pooled studies varied between 0.83 to 1.87 (95% CI, I2, T2 varied 0.33–3.10; p = 0.001; 0–74%; 0–0.59). RoB varied between some concerns and high risk. GRADE rating was low. Conclusions: MI combined with physical practice (PP) might have a high potential for healthy and impaired children and adolescents. However, important reporting recommendations (PETTLEP, TIDieR, CONSORT) should be followed. The systematic review was registered with PROSPERO: CRD42021237361. View Full-Text
Keywords: motor imagery training; mental practice; PETTLEP; children and adolescents; randomized controlled trial; systematic review and meta-analysis motor imagery training; mental practice; PETTLEP; children and adolescents; randomized controlled trial; systematic review and meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Behrendt, F.; Zumbrunnen, V.; Brem, L.; Suica, Z.; Gäumann, S.; Ziller, C.; Gerth, U.; Schuster-Amft, C. Effect of Motor Imagery Training on Motor Learning in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9467. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18189467

AMA Style

Behrendt F, Zumbrunnen V, Brem L, Suica Z, Gäumann S, Ziller C, Gerth U, Schuster-Amft C. Effect of Motor Imagery Training on Motor Learning in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(18):9467. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18189467

Chicago/Turabian Style

Behrendt, Frank, Valerie Zumbrunnen, Lynn Brem, Zorica Suica, Szabina Gäumann, Carina Ziller, Ulrich Gerth, and Corina Schuster-Amft. 2021. "Effect of Motor Imagery Training on Motor Learning in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 18: 9467. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18189467

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