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Cardiogenetics, Volume 14, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 4 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Background: Pompe disease is a rare, severe, autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by GAA gene mutations, which cause α-1,4-glucosidase enzyme deficiency. There are two forms of Pompe disease based on the age of onset and the infantile and adult form (LOPD). Cardiac involvement, previously recognized only in infantile cases, is now also reported in adults. Cardiomyopathy remains an exceptional finding, while heart rhythm disorders appear to be more frequent. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated cardiac involvement in 12 patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) followed for an overall period of 143 years (mean 12.7 ± 7.7) using ECG, Holter ECG, and echocardiography. View this paper
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9 pages, 238 KiB  
Perspective
COVID-19 and the Heart: Lessons Learned and Future Research Directions
by Tetz Cheng-Che Lee, Alaa Mabrouk Salem Omar and Jonathan N. Bella
Cardiogenetics 2024, 14(1), 51-58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cardiogenetics14010004 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 902
Abstract
It has become evident that acute COVID-19 infection can lead to cardiovascular complications. While the exact mechanisms by which COVID-19 affects the cardiovascular system have yet to be fully elucidated, several mechanisms have been proposed, including direct myocardial effects on the virus and [...] Read more.
It has become evident that acute COVID-19 infection can lead to cardiovascular complications. While the exact mechanisms by which COVID-19 affects the cardiovascular system have yet to be fully elucidated, several mechanisms have been proposed, including direct myocardial effects on the virus and systemic inflammation as an indirect result. The cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 have been characterized and described using noninvasive cardiac imaging. The impact of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system extends beyond the acute phase of the infection and well beyond recovery or the convalescent period. However, the underlying mechanisms of post-viral long-COVID symptoms have yet to be elucidated. It is evident that COVID-19 has become endemic and is here to stay. Future studies are needed (1) to understand the long-term effects of the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19, future cardiovascular events and the impact of mutating variants on cardiovascular complications through data collection and analysis, (2) to identify the most important diagnostic criteria for prognosis of COVID-19 and to understand the disease mechanism through biomarkers and advanced cardiac imaging, including echocardiography and (3) to develop novel strategies to manage and treat these cardiovascular complications using the knowledge gained. Full article
13 pages, 568 KiB  
Article
Risk of Cardiac Arrhythmias in Patients with Late-Onset Pompe Disease—Results from a Long Follow-Up in a Group of 12 Patients and Review of Literature
by Alberto Palladino, Luigia Passamano, Marianna Scutifero, Salvatore Morra, Esther Picillo, Andrea Antonio Papa, Gerardo Nigro and Luisa Politano
Cardiogenetics 2024, 14(1), 38-50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cardiogenetics14010003 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 981
Abstract
Background. Pompe disease is a rare, severe, autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by GAA gene mutations, which cause α-1,4-glucosidase enzyme deficiency. There are two forms of Pompe disease based on the age of onset, the infantile and the adult form (LOPD). Cardiac [...] Read more.
Background. Pompe disease is a rare, severe, autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by GAA gene mutations, which cause α-1,4-glucosidase enzyme deficiency. There are two forms of Pompe disease based on the age of onset, the infantile and the adult form (LOPD). Cardiac involvement, previously recognized only in infantile cases, is now also reported in adults. Cardiomyopathy remains an exceptional finding while heart rhythm disorders appear to be more frequent. Methods. We retrospectively evaluated cardiac involvement in 12 patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) followed for an overall period of 143 years (mean 12.7 ± 7.7) using ECG, Holter ECG, and echocardiography. Results. The mean age of patients (M8:F4) at the first visit was 40.7 ± 16.1 (range 14–63) and 53.7 ± 16.9 (range 21–76) at last visit. Conduction delay was present in three patients; one patient developed ascending aorta ectasia but had a history of hypertension, and one patient showed right heart enlargement on echocardiography, probably due to pulmonary hypertension. No patient died during the FU, nor developed cardiomyopathy. Ectopic supraventricular beats and repeated episodes of ablation-resistant atrial fibrillation were observed in only one patient (8.3%) who required PMK implantation. Conclusions. Benefitting from the long follow-up, this study allows us to state that primary myocardial involvement is rare in patients with LOPD, while rhythm disorders are more frequent and require monitoring to avoid the risk of possible life-threatening complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Rare Disease-Neuromuscular Diseases)
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12 pages, 664 KiB  
Review
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy and Chronic Kidney Disease: An Updated Review
by Sheefah Dhuny, Henry H. L. Wu, Manova David and Rajkumar Chinnadurai
Cardiogenetics 2024, 14(1), 26-37; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cardiogenetics14010002 - 12 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1700
Abstract
The links between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiac conditions such as coronary heart disease or valvular disease are well established in the literature. However, the relationship between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and CKD is not as frequently described or researched. HCM is the [...] Read more.
The links between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiac conditions such as coronary heart disease or valvular disease are well established in the literature. However, the relationship between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and CKD is not as frequently described or researched. HCM is the most common form of inherited cardiac disease. It is mainly transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion and caused by mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins. HCM is estimated to affect 0.2% of the general population and has an annual mortality rate of between approximately 0.5 and 1%. Our review article aims to summarize the genetics of HCM; discuss the potential clinical mimics that occur concurrently with HCM and CKD, potential interlinks that associate between these two conditions, the role of renal dysfunction as a poor prognostic indicator in HCM; and based on currently available evidence, recommend a management approach that may be suitable when clinicians are faced with this clinical scenario. Full article
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25 pages, 20599 KiB  
Article
Gene-Specific Discriminative Echocardiogram Findings in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Determined Using Artificial Intelligence: A Pilot Study
by Mila Glavaški, Aleksandra Ilić and Lazar Velicki
Cardiogenetics 2024, 14(1), 1-25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cardiogenetics14010001 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is among the most common forms of cardiomyopathies, with a prevalence of 1:200 to 1:500 people. HCM is caused by variants in genes encoding cardiac sarcomeric proteins, of which a majority reside in MYH7, MYBPC3, and TNNT2. [...] Read more.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is among the most common forms of cardiomyopathies, with a prevalence of 1:200 to 1:500 people. HCM is caused by variants in genes encoding cardiac sarcomeric proteins, of which a majority reside in MYH7, MYBPC3, and TNNT2. Up to 40% of the HCM cases do not have any known HCM variant. Genotype–phenotype associations in HCM remain incompletely understood. This study involved two visits of 46 adult patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HCM. In total, 174 genes were analyzed on the Next-Generation Sequencing platform, and transthoracic echocardiography was performed. Gene-specific discriminative echocardiogram findings were identified using the computer vision library Fast AI. This was accomplished with the generation of deep learning models for the classification of ultrasonic images based on the underlying genotype and a later analysis of the most decisive image regions. Gene-specific echocardiogram findings were identified: for variants in the MYH7 gene (vs. variant not detected), the most discriminative structures were the septum, left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) segment, anterior wall, apex, right ventricle, and mitral apparatus; for variants in MYBPC3 gene (vs. variant not detected) these were the septum, left ventricle, and left ventricle/chamber; while for variants in the TNNT2 gene (vs. variant not detected), the most discriminative structures were the septum and right ventricle. Full article
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