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Review

The Healthy Gluten-Free Diet: Practical Tips to Prevent Metabolic Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies in Celiac Patients

1
UOC di Nutrizione Clinica, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
2
Scuola di Specializzazione in Scienza dell’Alimentazione, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome, Italy
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Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia Traslazionale, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
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UOSD di Oncologia Pediatrica, Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute della Donna, del Bambino e di Sanità Pubblica, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Scuola di Specializzazione in Medicina Interna, Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore, Largo F. Vito 1, 00168 Rome, Italy
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UOC di Medicina Interna e Gastroenterologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
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UOSD di Nutrizione Avanzata in Oncologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Chirurgiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Piotr Ceranowicz
Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12(2), 166-182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020015
Received: 3 March 2021 / Revised: 22 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Gastrointestinal Diseases)
The gluten-free diet (GFD) is the cornerstone treatment for coeliac disease (CD). However, a healthy GFD is more complex than the only exclusion of gluten-containing foods. Most celiac patients do not receive nutritional advice and tend to consume industrial gluten-free products (GFPs), which often lack fiber, vitamins, and other micronutrients while being rich in saturated fats and refined sugars. This review focuses on the main potential metabolic disorders and nutritional deficiencies in CD patients at diagnosis and dissects the main nutritional and metabolic issues due to a non-balanced GFD. Nutritional tips to achieve an adequate dietary approach in CD are provided. We also compared the main nutritional components of naturally gluten-free cereals (including pseudocereals) to give an exhaustive overview of the possible healthy alternatives to processed GFPs. Clinicians and dietitians should be systematically involved in the diagnosis of CD to monitor the appropriateness of GFD and the patient’s nutritional status over time. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-free diet; nutritional deficiencies; coeliac disease; metabolic diseases; rice; maize; sorghum; millet; quinoa; amaranth; buckwheat gluten-free diet; nutritional deficiencies; coeliac disease; metabolic diseases; rice; maize; sorghum; millet; quinoa; amaranth; buckwheat
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rinninella, E.; Cintoni, M.; Raoul, P.; Triarico, S.; Dionisi, T.; Gasbarrini, G.B.; Gasbarrini, A.; Mele, M.C. The Healthy Gluten-Free Diet: Practical Tips to Prevent Metabolic Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies in Celiac Patients. Gastroenterol. Insights 2021, 12, 166-182. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020015

AMA Style

Rinninella E, Cintoni M, Raoul P, Triarico S, Dionisi T, Gasbarrini GB, Gasbarrini A, Mele MC. The Healthy Gluten-Free Diet: Practical Tips to Prevent Metabolic Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies in Celiac Patients. Gastroenterology Insights. 2021; 12(2):166-182. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020015

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rinninella, Emanuele, Marco Cintoni, Pauline Raoul, Silvia Triarico, Tommaso Dionisi, Giovanni B. Gasbarrini, Antonio Gasbarrini, and Maria C. Mele 2021. "The Healthy Gluten-Free Diet: Practical Tips to Prevent Metabolic Disorders and Nutritional Deficiencies in Celiac Patients" Gastroenterology Insights 12, no. 2: 166-182. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/gastroent12020015

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