Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in men in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Since over 60% of prostate cancer cases occur in men over 65 years of age, and this population will increase steadily in the coming years, prostate cancer will be a major cancer-related burden in the foreseeable future. Accumulating data from more recent research suggest that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a previously unrecognized role in every stage of cancer development, including initiation, proliferation, and metastasis. Prostate cancer is not only diagnosed in the late stages of life, but also progresses relatively slowly. This makes prostate cancer an ideal model system for exploring the potential of natural products as cancer prevention and/or treatment reagents because they usually act relatively slowly compared to most synthetic drugs. Resveratrol (RSV) is a naturally occurring stilbenoid and possesses strong anti-cancer properties with few adverse effects. Accumulating data from both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that RSV can interfere with prostate cancer initiation and progression by targeting the TME. Therefore, this review is aimed to summarize the recent advancement in RSV-inhibited prostate cancer initiation, proliferation, and metastasis as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, with particular emphasis on the effect of RSV on TME. This will not only better our understanding of prostate cancer TMEs, but also pave the way for the development of RSV as a potential reagent for prostate cancer prevention and/or therapy.