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Review

Mechanisms of Action of Prebiotics and Their Effects on Gastro-Intestinal Disorders in Adults

1
Gastroenterology Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome, Italy
2
Unit of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Campus Bio-Medico University of Rome, Via Álvaro del Portillo 21, 00128 Rome, Italy
3
Gastrointestinal Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry Scuola Medica Salernitana, Università di Salerno, Via Allende, 84081 Salerno, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2020 / Revised: 4 April 2020 / Accepted: 6 April 2020 / Published: 9 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Relationship between Nutrition and Digestive Diseases)
In recent years, research has focused on the use of dietary fibers and prebiotics, since many of these polysaccharides can be metabolized by intestinal microbiota, leading to the production of short-chain fatty acids. The metabolites of prebiotic fermentation also show anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory capabilities, suggesting an interesting role in the treatment of several pathological conditions. Galacto-oligosaccharide and short- and long-chain fructans (Fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin) are the most studied prebiotics, even if other dietary compounds seem to show the same features. There is an increasing interest in dietary strategies to modulate microbiota. The aim of this review is to explore the mechanisms of action of prebiotics and their effects on the principal gastro-intestinal disorders in adults, with a special focus on Galacto-oligosaccharides, Fructo-oligosaccharides, lactulose and new emerging substances which currently have evidence of prebiotics effects, such as xilooligosaccharides, soybean oligosaccharides, isomaltooligosaccharides, lactobionic acid, resistant starch and polyphenols. View Full-Text
Keywords: prebiotics; gastro-intestinal disorders; intestinal microbiota; oxidative stress prebiotics; gastro-intestinal disorders; intestinal microbiota; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guarino, M.P.L.; Altomare, A.; Emerenziani, S.; Di Rosa, C.; Ribolsi, M.; Balestrieri, P.; Iovino, P.; Rocchi, G.; Cicala, M. Mechanisms of Action of Prebiotics and Their Effects on Gastro-Intestinal Disorders in Adults. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1037. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12041037

AMA Style

Guarino MPL, Altomare A, Emerenziani S, Di Rosa C, Ribolsi M, Balestrieri P, Iovino P, Rocchi G, Cicala M. Mechanisms of Action of Prebiotics and Their Effects on Gastro-Intestinal Disorders in Adults. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1037. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12041037

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guarino, Michele P.L., Annamaria Altomare, Sara Emerenziani, Claudia Di Rosa, Mentore Ribolsi, Paola Balestrieri, Paola Iovino, Giulia Rocchi, and Michele Cicala. 2020. "Mechanisms of Action of Prebiotics and Their Effects on Gastro-Intestinal Disorders in Adults" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1037. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nu12041037

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