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Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins

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Department F.-A. Forel for Environmental and Aquatic Sciences, University of Geneva, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 Wageningen, The Netherlands
Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), 6700 Wageningen, The Netherlands
German Environment Agency, Unit Drinking Water Resources and Water Treatment, Corrensplatz 1, 14195 Berlin, Germany
Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-120 Krakow, Poland
Institute of Botany, Nature Research Centre, Vilnius 08412, Lithuania
R&D Department Environmental Engineering, 3edata, 27004 Lugo, Spain
Department of Water Protection, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61614 Poznan, Poland
Department of Hydrobiology, Adam Mickiewicz University, 61614 Poznan, Poland
Department of Limnology and Water Quality, AECOM U.R.S, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Environmental Engineering, Abant Izzet Baysal University, 14280 Bolu, Turkey
Department of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, 20520 Åbo, Finland
Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ankara University, 6100 Ankara, Turkey
Department of biology, Middle East Technical University, 6800 Ankara, Turkey
Institute of Marine Sciences, Department of Oceanography, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
Department of Botany, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
Department of Basic Science, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
Water Quality Department, Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company, 11146 Athens, Greece
Department of Biology, Balikesir University, 10145 Balikesir, Turkey
Department of Bioengineering, Bursa Technical University, 16310 Bursa, Turkey
Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), 17003 Girona, Spain
Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, Uppsala University, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Ecology and Genetics, Erken Laboratory, Uppsala University, 76173 Norrtalje, Sweden
Research Center in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources (CIBIO-Azores), InBIO Associated Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of the Azores, 9501-801 Ponta Delgada, Portugal
Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Cyprus University of Technology, 3036 Lemesos, Cyprus
Centre for Freshwater and Environmental Studies, Dundalk Institute of Technology, A91 K584 Dundalk, Ireland
Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 90364 Lodz, Poland
Republic of Turkey Ministry of Food Agriculture, Fisheries Research Institute, 32500 Eğirdir, Isparta, Turkey
Department of Sustainable Ecosystems and Bioresources, Fondazione Edmund Mach, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, Italy
Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, UK
Department of Freshwater and Marine Ecology, University of Amsterdam, 1090 GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Merkez, Turkey
Department of Biology, Giresun University, 28100 Giresun, Turkey
Department of Biology, Hitit University, 19040 Corum, Turkey
Department of Icthyology, Hydrobiology and Aquatic Ecology, Inland Fisheries Institute, 10719 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Freshwater Protection, Institute of Environmental Protection- National Research Institute, 01-692 Warsaw, Poland
Centro de Investigação da Montanha, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253 Bragança, Portugal
Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR) and University of Porto, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
Department of Freshwater Resource and Management, Faculty of Aquatic Sciences, Istanbul University, 34134 Istanbul, Turkey
Department of Biology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Department of Experimental Limnology, Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, 16775 Stechlin, Germany
Department of Biology, Limnological Institute, University of Konstanz, 78464 Konstanz, Germany
Department of Biology, Lund University, 22362 Lund, Sweden
RECETOX, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, 62500 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Hydrobiology, Morava Board Authority, 60200 Brno, Czech Republic
Laboratory of Paleoecology, Institute of Botany, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 60200 Brno, Czech Republic
Department of Environment and Resource Management, Mediterranean Fisheries Research Production and Training Institute, 7090 Antalya, Turkey
Faculty of Aquaculture, Mersin University, 33160 Mersin, Turkey
Department of Water Quality, Slovenian Environmental Agency, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Department of Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, National Institute of Biology, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Center for Scientific Research «DEMOKRITOS», 15341 Attiki, Greece
Department of Freshwater Ecology, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, 0349 Oslo, Norway
Institute of Environmental Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, 60965 Poznan, Poland
National Reference Center for Hydrobiology, Public Health Authority of the Slovak Republic, 82645 Bratislava, Slovakia
School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 7GJ, UK
Department of Biology, Sakarya University, 54187 Sakarya, Turkey
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, SS Cyril and Methodius University, 1000 Skopje, Macedonia
Department for Ecotoxicology, Teaching Institute of Public Health of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, 51000 Rijeka, Croatia
Institute of Technology, The State University of Applied Sciences, 82300 Elblag, Poland
Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland
Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58059-970 Paraíba, Brasil
Department of Civil Engineering, University of A Coruña, 15192 A Coruña, Spain
Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology, and Environmental Sciences, University of Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Hydrobiology, University of Bialystok, 15245 Bialystok, Poland
Institute of Environmental Protection and Engineering, University of Bielsko-Biala, 43309 Bielsko-Biala, Poland
Department of Biology, University of Cádiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cádiz, Spain
Department of Forest Engineering, University of Cankiri Karatekin, 18200 Cankiri, Turkey
Freshwater Biological Laboratory, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Marine Biotechnology, University of Gdansk, 81378 Gdynia, Poland
Department of Ecology, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
Lammi Biological Station, University of Helsinki, 16900 Lammi, Finland
Department of Animal Biology, Plant Biology and Ecology, University of Jaen, 23701 Jaen, Spain
Department of Hydrobiology and Protection of Ecosystems, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20262 Lublin, Poland
Instituto Dom Luiz, University of Lisbon, 1749016 Lisbon, Portugal
Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera, ICTJA, CSIC, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Ecology, University of Malaga, 29071 Malaga, Spain
Centro de Investigacións Cientificas Avanzadas (CICA), Facultade de Ciencias, Universidade da Coruña, 15071 A Coruña, Spain
Cavanilles Institute of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, University of Valencia, 46980 Paterna Valencia, Spain
Department of Microbiology and Ecology, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Spain
Department of Water Protection Engineering, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-720 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Tourism, Recreation and Ecology, University of Warmia and Mazury, 10-720 Olsztyn, Poland
Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, 02-096 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Plant Ecology and Environmental Conservation, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, 02-089 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Department of Environmental Improvement, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Marine Sciences, Marine Biology and Fisheries, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
Society for the Protection of Prespa, 53077 Agios Germanos, Greece
Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Tartu Observatory, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Tartu, 61602 Tartu, Estonia
Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, Potsdam University, 14469 Potsdam, Germany
Institute of Marine Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 28557, USA
Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins). Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a) and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin) due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale. Direct and indirect effects of temperature were the main drivers of the spatial distribution in the toxins produced by the cyanobacterial community, the toxin concentrations and toxin quota. Generalized linear models showed that a Toxin Diversity Index (TDI) increased with latitude, while it decreased with water stability. Increases in TDI were explained through a significant increase in toxin variants such as MC-YR, anatoxin and cylindrospermopsin, accompanied by a decreasing presence of MC-LR. While global warming continues, the direct and indirect effects of increased lake temperatures will drive changes in the distribution of cyanobacterial toxins in Europe, potentially promoting selection of a few highly toxic species or strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: microcystin; anatoxin; cylindrospermopsin; temperature; direct effects; indirect effects; spatial distribution; European Multi Lake Survey microcystin; anatoxin; cylindrospermopsin; temperature; direct effects; indirect effects; spatial distribution; European Multi Lake Survey
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mantzouki, E.; Lürling, M.; Fastner, J.; De Senerpont Domis, L.; Wilk-Woźniak, E.; Koreivienė, J.; Seelen, L.; Teurlincx, S.; Verstijnen, Y.; Krztoń, W.; Walusiak, E.; Karosienė, J.; Kasperovičienė, J.; Savadova, K.; Vitonytė, I.; Cillero-Castro, C.; Budzyńska, A.; Goldyn, R.; Kozak, A.; Rosińska, J.; Szeląg-Wasielewska, E.; Domek, P.; Jakubowska-Krepska, N.; Kwasizur, K.; Messyasz, B.; Pełechata, A.; Pełechaty, M.; Kokocinski, M.; García-Murcia, A.; Real, M.; Romans, E.; Noguero-Ribes, J.; Duque, D.P.; Fernández-Morán, E.; Karakaya, N.; Häggqvist, K.; Demir, N.; Beklioğlu, M.; Filiz, N.; Levi, E.E.; Iskin, U.; Bezirci, G.; Tavşanoğlu, Ü.N.; Özhan, K.; Gkelis, S.; Panou, M.; Fakioglu, Ö.; Avagianos, C.; Kaloudis, T.; Çelik, K.; Yilmaz, M.; Marcé, R.; Catalán, N.; Bravo, A.G.; Buck, M.; Colom-Montero, W.; Mustonen, K.; Pierson, D.; Yang, Y.; Raposeiro, P.M.; Gonçalves, V.; Antoniou, M.G.; Tsiarta, N.; McCarthy, V.; Perello, V.C.; Feldmann, T.; Laas, A.; Panksep, K.; Tuvikene, L.; Gagala, I.; Mankiewicz-Boczek, J.; Yağcı, M.A.; Çınar, Ş.; Çapkın, K.; Yağcı, A.; Cesur, M.; Bilgin, F.; Bulut, C.; Uysal, R.; Obertegger, U.; Boscaini, A.; Flaim, G.; Salmaso, N.; Cerasino, L.; Richardson, J.; Visser, P.M.; Verspagen, J.M.H.; Karan, T.; Soylu, E.N.; Maraşlıoğlu, F.; Napiórkowska-Krzebietke, A.; Ochocka, A.; Pasztaleniec, A.; Antão-Geraldes, A.M.; Vasconcelos, V.; Morais, J.; Vale, M.; Köker, L.; Akçaalan, R.; Albay, M.; Špoljarić Maronić, D.; Stević, F.; Žuna Pfeiffer, T.; Fonvielle, J.; Straile, D.; Rothhaupt, K.-O.; Hansson, L.-A.; Urrutia-Cordero, P.; Bláha, L.; Geriš, R.; Fránková, M.; Koçer, M.A.T.; Alp, M.T.; Remec-Rekar, S.; Elersek, T.; Triantis, T.; Zervou, S.-K.; Hiskia, A.; Haande, S.; Skjelbred, B.; Madrecka, B.; Nemova, H.; Drastichova, I.; Chomova, L.; Edwards, C.; Sevindik, T.O.; Tunca, H.; Önem, B.; Aleksovski, B.; Krstić, S.; Vucelić, I.B.; Nawrocka, L.; Salmi, P.; Machado-Vieira, D.; De Oliveira, A.G.; Delgado-Martín, J.; García, D.; Cereijo, J.L.; Gomà, J.; Trapote, M.C.; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T.; Obrador, B.; Grabowska, M.; Karpowicz, M.; Chmura, D.; Úbeda, B.; Gálvez, J.Á.; Özen, A.; Christoffersen, K.S.; Warming, T.P.; Kobos, J.; Mazur-Marzec, H.; Pérez-Martínez, C.; Ramos-Rodríguez, E.; Arvola, L.; Alcaraz-Párraga, P.; Toporowska, M.; Pawlik-Skowronska, B.; Niedźwiecki, M.; Pęczuła, W.; Leira, M.; Hernández, A.; Moreno-Ostos, E.; Blanco, J.M.; Rodríguez, V.; Montes-Pérez, J.J.; Palomino, R.L.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Carballeira, R.; Camacho, A.; Picazo, A.; Rochera, C.; Santamans, A.C.; Ferriol, C.; Romo, S.; Soria, J.M.; Dunalska, J.; Sieńska, J.; Szymański, D.; Kruk, M.; Kostrzewska-Szlakowska, I.; Jasser, I.; Žutinić, P.; Gligora Udovič, M.; Plenković-Moraj, A.; Frąk, M.; Bańkowska-Sobczak, A.; Wasilewicz, M.; Özkan, K.; Maliaka, V.; Kangro, K.; Grossart, H.-P.; Paerl, H.W.; Carey, C.C.; Ibelings, B.W. Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins. Toxins 2018, 10, 156.

AMA Style

Mantzouki E, Lürling M, Fastner J, De Senerpont Domis L, Wilk-Woźniak E, Koreivienė J, Seelen L, Teurlincx S, Verstijnen Y, Krztoń W, Walusiak E, Karosienė J, Kasperovičienė J, Savadova K, Vitonytė I, Cillero-Castro C, Budzyńska A, Goldyn R, Kozak A, Rosińska J, Szeląg-Wasielewska E, Domek P, Jakubowska-Krepska N, Kwasizur K, Messyasz B, Pełechata A, Pełechaty M, Kokocinski M, García-Murcia A, Real M, Romans E, Noguero-Ribes J, Duque DP, Fernández-Morán E, Karakaya N, Häggqvist K, Demir N, Beklioğlu M, Filiz N, Levi EE, Iskin U, Bezirci G, Tavşanoğlu ÜN, Özhan K, Gkelis S, Panou M, Fakioglu Ö, Avagianos C, Kaloudis T, Çelik K, Yilmaz M, Marcé R, Catalán N, Bravo AG, Buck M, Colom-Montero W, Mustonen K, Pierson D, Yang Y, Raposeiro PM, Gonçalves V, Antoniou MG, Tsiarta N, McCarthy V, Perello VC, Feldmann T, Laas A, Panksep K, Tuvikene L, Gagala I, Mankiewicz-Boczek J, Yağcı MA, Çınar Ş, Çapkın K, Yağcı A, Cesur M, Bilgin F, Bulut C, Uysal R, Obertegger U, Boscaini A, Flaim G, Salmaso N, Cerasino L, Richardson J, Visser PM, Verspagen JMH, Karan T, Soylu EN, Maraşlıoğlu F, Napiórkowska-Krzebietke A, Ochocka A, Pasztaleniec A, Antão-Geraldes AM, Vasconcelos V, Morais J, Vale M, Köker L, Akçaalan R, Albay M, Špoljarić Maronić D, Stević F, Žuna Pfeiffer T, Fonvielle J, Straile D, Rothhaupt K-O, Hansson L-A, Urrutia-Cordero P, Bláha L, Geriš R, Fránková M, Koçer MAT, Alp MT, Remec-Rekar S, Elersek T, Triantis T, Zervou S-K, Hiskia A, Haande S, Skjelbred B, Madrecka B, Nemova H, Drastichova I, Chomova L, Edwards C, Sevindik TO, Tunca H, Önem B, Aleksovski B, Krstić S, Vucelić IB, Nawrocka L, Salmi P, Machado-Vieira D, De Oliveira AG, Delgado-Martín J, García D, Cereijo JL, Gomà J, Trapote MC, Vegas-Vilarrúbia T, Obrador B, Grabowska M, Karpowicz M, Chmura D, Úbeda B, Gálvez JÁ, Özen A, Christoffersen KS, Warming TP, Kobos J, Mazur-Marzec H, Pérez-Martínez C, Ramos-Rodríguez E, Arvola L, Alcaraz-Párraga P, Toporowska M, Pawlik-Skowronska B, Niedźwiecki M, Pęczuła W, Leira M, Hernández A, Moreno-Ostos E, Blanco JM, Rodríguez V, Montes-Pérez JJ, Palomino RL, Rodríguez-Pérez E, Carballeira R, Camacho A, Picazo A, Rochera C, Santamans AC, Ferriol C, Romo S, Soria JM, Dunalska J, Sieńska J, Szymański D, Kruk M, Kostrzewska-Szlakowska I, Jasser I, Žutinić P, Gligora Udovič M, Plenković-Moraj A, Frąk M, Bańkowska-Sobczak A, Wasilewicz M, Özkan K, Maliaka V, Kangro K, Grossart H-P, Paerl HW, Carey CC, Ibelings BW. Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins. Toxins. 2018; 10(4):156.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mantzouki, Evanthia, Miquel Lürling, Jutta Fastner, Lisette De Senerpont Domis, Elżbieta Wilk-Woźniak, Judita Koreivienė, Laura Seelen, Sven Teurlincx, Yvon Verstijnen, Wojciech Krztoń, Edward Walusiak, Jūratė Karosienė, Jūratė Kasperovičienė, Ksenija Savadova, Irma Vitonytė, Carmen Cillero-Castro, Agnieszka Budzyńska, Ryszard Goldyn, Anna Kozak, Joanna Rosińska, Elżbieta Szeląg-Wasielewska, Piotr Domek, Natalia Jakubowska-Krepska, Kinga Kwasizur, Beata Messyasz, Aleksandra Pełechata, Mariusz Pełechaty, Mikolaj Kokocinski, Ana García-Murcia, Monserrat Real, Elvira Romans, Jordi Noguero-Ribes, David P. Duque, Elísabeth Fernández-Morán, Nusret Karakaya, Kerstin Häggqvist, Nilsun Demir, Meryem Beklioğlu, Nur Filiz, Eti E. Levi, Uğur Iskin, Gizem Bezirci, Ülkü N. Tavşanoğlu, Koray Özhan, Spyros Gkelis, Manthos Panou, Özden Fakioglu, Christos Avagianos, Triantafyllos Kaloudis, Kemal Çelik, Mete Yilmaz, Rafael Marcé, Nuria Catalán, Andrea G. Bravo, Moritz Buck, William Colom-Montero, Kristiina Mustonen, Don Pierson, Yang Yang, Pedro M. Raposeiro, Vítor Gonçalves, Maria G. Antoniou, Nikoletta Tsiarta, Valerie McCarthy, Victor C. Perello, Tõnu Feldmann, Alo Laas, Kristel Panksep, Lea Tuvikene, Ilona Gagala, Joana Mankiewicz-Boczek, Meral A. Yağcı, Şakir Çınar, Kadir Çapkın, Abdulkadir Yağcı, Mehmet Cesur, Fuat Bilgin, Cafer Bulut, Rahmi Uysal, Ulrike Obertegger, Adriano Boscaini, Giovanna Flaim, Nico Salmaso, Leonardo Cerasino, Jessica Richardson, Petra M. Visser, Jolanda M.H. Verspagen, Tünay Karan, Elif N. Soylu, Faruk Maraşlıoğlu, Agnieszka Napiórkowska-Krzebietke, Agnieszka Ochocka, Agnieszka Pasztaleniec, Ana M. Antão-Geraldes, Vitor Vasconcelos, João Morais, Micaela Vale, Latife Köker, Reyhan Akçaalan, Meriç Albay, Dubravka Špoljarić Maronić, Filip Stević, Tanja Žuna Pfeiffer, Jeremy Fonvielle, Dietmar Straile, Karl-Otto Rothhaupt, Lars-Anders Hansson, Pablo Urrutia-Cordero, Luděk Bláha, Rodan Geriš, Markéta Fránková, Mehmet A.T. Koçer, Mehmet T. Alp, Spela Remec-Rekar, Tina Elersek, Theodoros Triantis, Sevasti-Kiriaki Zervou, Anastasia Hiskia, Sigrid Haande, Birger Skjelbred, Beata Madrecka, Hana Nemova, Iveta Drastichova, Lucia Chomova, Christine Edwards, Tuğba O. Sevindik, Hatice Tunca, Burçin Önem, Boris Aleksovski, Svetislav Krstić, Itana B. Vucelić, Lidia Nawrocka, Pauliina Salmi, Danielle Machado-Vieira, Alinne G. De Oliveira, Jordi Delgado-Martín, David García, Jose L. Cereijo, Joan Gomà, Mari C. Trapote, Teresa Vegas-Vilarrúbia, Biel Obrador, Magdalena Grabowska, Maciej Karpowicz, Damian Chmura, Bárbara Úbeda, José Á. Gálvez, Arda Özen, Kirsten S. Christoffersen, Trine P. Warming, Justyna Kobos, Hanna Mazur-Marzec, Carmen Pérez-Martínez, Eloísa Ramos-Rodríguez, Lauri Arvola, Pablo Alcaraz-Párraga, Magdalena Toporowska, Barbara Pawlik-Skowronska, Michał Niedźwiecki, Wojciech Pęczuła, Manel Leira, Armand Hernández, Enrique Moreno-Ostos, José M. Blanco, Valeriano Rodríguez, Jorge J. Montes-Pérez, Roberto L. Palomino, Estela Rodríguez-Pérez, Rafael Carballeira, Antonio Camacho, Antonio Picazo, Carlos Rochera, Anna C. Santamans, Carmen Ferriol, Susana Romo, Juan M. Soria, Julita Dunalska, Justyna Sieńska, Daniel Szymański, Marek Kruk, Iwona Kostrzewska-Szlakowska, Iwona Jasser, Petar Žutinić, Marija Gligora Udovič, Anđelka Plenković-Moraj, Magdalena Frąk, Agnieszka Bańkowska-Sobczak, Michał Wasilewicz, Korhan Özkan, Valentini Maliaka, Kersti Kangro, Hans-Peter Grossart, Hans W. Paerl, Cayelan C. Carey, and Bas W. Ibelings 2018. "Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins" Toxins 10, no. 4: 156.

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