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Article

Effect of Ambient pH on Growth, Pathogenicity, and Patulin Production of Penicillium expansum

1
College of Science, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
2
College of Food Science and Engineering, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou 730070, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 May 2021 / Revised: 4 August 2021 / Accepted: 5 August 2021 / Published: 7 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Penicillium expansum is an important postharvest pathogen of pomaceous fruit and a causal agent of blue mold or soft rot. In this study, we investigated the effect of ambient pH on growth, ultrastructure alteration, and pathogenicity of P. expansum, as well as accumulation of patulin and expression of genes involved in patulin biosynthesis. Under different pH, the fungus was routinely cultured and collected for growth, pathogenicity, patulin production, and gene expression studies using transmission electron microscopy, apple inoculation, HPLC, and RT-qPCR methods. Different ambient pH had significant impact on expression of genes and growth factors involved in patulin biosynthesis. Under same range of pH, gene expression profile, growth factors, and patulin accumulation (in vivo and in vitro) all showed similar changing trends. A well-developed cell was observed in addition to upregulation of genes at pH between pH 5.0 and 7.0, while the opposite was observed when pH was too basic (8.5) or too acid (2.5). Additionally, ambient pH had direct or indirect influence on expression of PecreaA, PelaeA, and PepacC. These findings will help in understanding the effect of ambient pH on growth, pathogenicity, and patulin production and support the development of successful methods for combating P. expansum infection on apple fruits. View Full-Text
Keywords: Penicillium expansum; patulin; gene expression; ambient pH; pathogenicity Penicillium expansum; patulin; gene expression; ambient pH; pathogenicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jimdjio, C.K.; Xue, H.; Bi, Y.; Nan, M.; Li, L.; Zhang, R.; Liu, Q.; Pu, L. Effect of Ambient pH on Growth, Pathogenicity, and Patulin Production of Penicillium expansum. Toxins 2021, 13, 550. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080550

AMA Style

Jimdjio CK, Xue H, Bi Y, Nan M, Li L, Zhang R, Liu Q, Pu L. Effect of Ambient pH on Growth, Pathogenicity, and Patulin Production of Penicillium expansum. Toxins. 2021; 13(8):550. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080550

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jimdjio, Carelle K., Huali Xue, Yang Bi, Mina Nan, Lan Li, Rui Zhang, Qili Liu, and Lumei Pu. 2021. "Effect of Ambient pH on Growth, Pathogenicity, and Patulin Production of Penicillium expansum" Toxins 13, no. 8: 550. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080550

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