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Sports, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2021) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Utilising load-velocity profiling (LVP) data to predict one repetition maximum (1RM) can be a useful tool for optimising sessional barbell load within strength and conditioning. Several methods currently exist for predicting 1RM from LVP data in free-weight exercises, often resulting in large systematic biases when compared with measured 1RM. This research, therefore, adopts a novel approach to 1RM prediction that utilises velocity at 80% 1RM and a combination of interpolation and extrapolation. Comparisons were made between linear and quadratic modeling and ballistic and non-ballistic exercise to determine the most valid method to estimate maximum load capabilities in strength-trained men. View this paper
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Article
Effect of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage on Bowling-Specific Motor Skills in Male Adolescent Cricketers
Sports 2021, 9(7), 103; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070103 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 949
Abstract
The current study examined the acute effects of a bout of resistance training on cricket bowling-specific motor performance. Eight sub-elite, resistance-untrained, adolescent male fast bowlers (age 15 ± 1.7 years; height 1.8 ± 0.1 m; weight 67.9 ± 7.9 kg) completed a bout [...] Read more.
The current study examined the acute effects of a bout of resistance training on cricket bowling-specific motor performance. Eight sub-elite, resistance-untrained, adolescent male fast bowlers (age 15 ± 1.7 years; height 1.8 ± 0.1 m; weight 67.9 ± 7.9 kg) completed a bout of upper and lower body resistance exercises. Indirect markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase [CK] and delayed onset of muscle soreness [DOMS]), anaerobic performance (15-m sprint and vertical jump), and cricket-specific motor performance (ball speed, run-up time, and accuracy) were measured prior to and 24 (T24) and 48 (T48) hours following the resistance training bout. The resistance training bout significantly increased CK (~350%; effect size [ES] = 1.89–2.24), DOMS (~240%; ES = 1.46–3.77) and 15-m sprint times (~4.0%; ES = 1.33–1.47), whilst significantly reducing vertical jump height (~7.0%; ES = 0.76–0.96) for up to 48 h. The ball speed (~3.0%; ES = 0.50–0.61) and bowling accuracy (~79%; ES = 0.39–0.70) were significantly reduced, whilst run-up time was significantly increased (~3.5%; ES = 0.36–0.50) for up to 24 h. These findings demonstrate that a bout of resistance training evokes exercise-induced muscle damage amongst sub-elite, adolescent male cricketers, which impairs anaerobic performance and bowling-specific motor performance measures. Cricket coaches should be cautious of incorporating bowling sessions within 24-h following a bout of resistance training for sub-elite adolescent fast bowlers, particularly for those commencing a resistance training program. Full article
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Article
Changes in Physical Activity during the COVID-19 Pandemic—An Analysis of Differences Based on Mitigation Policies and Incidence Values in the Federal States of Germany
Sports 2021, 9(7), 102; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070102 - 15 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1083
Abstract
Measures to slow down the spread of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 have had an impact on the daily life and physical activity (PA) of many people. Nevertheless, in Germany, mitigation policies and incidence values vary widely across the federal states (Länder). Thus, the aim of [...] Read more.
Measures to slow down the spread of coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 have had an impact on the daily life and physical activity (PA) of many people. Nevertheless, in Germany, mitigation policies and incidence values vary widely across the federal states (Länder). Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate regional differences in PA during the coronavirus pandemic. This study is based on the SPOVID project (Examining physical activity and sports behavior in the face of COVID-19 pandemic: a social inequality perspective) that incorporates a large-scale, representative cross-sectional survey representing the German population (≥14 years). Based on the survey that took place in October 2020 (N = 1477), we investigated the relationships between the COVID-19 incidence values as well as the mitigation policies across the federal states in Germany and changes in PA. Pearson correlations indicated a strong negative relationship between PA change and 7-day incidence values (r = −0.688 **, p = 0.009) and a moderate negative relationship between PA changes and an index of mitigation policies (r = −0.444, p = 0.112). Higher 7-day incidence values and stricter mitigation policies were associated with a stronger decline in PA levels. Therefore, it is important to support people to stay active even if there are restrictions. In particular, in federal states and regions with high incidences and stricter mitigation policies, measures to promote health-enhancing PA are necessary. Full article
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Article
Relative Age Effects in Basketball: Exploring the Selection into and Successful Transition Out of a National Talent Pathway
Sports 2021, 9(7), 101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070101 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Relative age effects (RAEs) appear consistently prevalent throughout the youth basketball literature. However, the selection into and successful transition out of a national talent pathway in basketball is yet to be explored. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to explore the [...] Read more.
Relative age effects (RAEs) appear consistently prevalent throughout the youth basketball literature. However, the selection into and successful transition out of a national talent pathway in basketball is yet to be explored. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to explore the influence of relative age, gender, and playing time based on the selection into the Regional Talent Hubs and Basketball England youth teams (U16, U18, and U20) and the successful transition into the England National Senior Teams. Participants who were selected into the male (n = 450) and female (n = 314) Basketball England Talent Pathway were allocated into one of three cohorts: (a) Regional Talent Hubs (U12 to U15; n = 183), (b) England National Youth Teams (U16, U18, and U20; n = 537), and (c) England National Senior Teams (n = 44). A chi-square test was used to compare the birth quarter (BQ) distributions of each cohort against the expected distributions, with a Cramer’s V (Vc) used to interpret effect sizes. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated to compare the likelihood of each BQ being represented. Males revealed significant RAEs across both the Regional Talent Hubs (p < 0.001, Vc > 0.29, OR = 10) and England National Youth Teams (p < 0.001, Vc > 0.17, OR = 3.1). In comparison, females only had significant RAEs in the Regional Talent Hubs (p < 0.001, Vc > 0.29, OR = 2.3). Despite RAEs being prevalent throughout youth levels, there were no significant differences in the BQ distribution based on playing time and those who made the successful transition to the England National Senior Teams. These findings demonstrate the potential mechanisms of RAEs in basketball, as well as the impetus to explore more equitable competition structures within the England Basketball Talent Pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
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Article
The Reliability of Common Functional Performance Tests within an Experimental Test Battery for the Lower Extremities
Sports 2021, 9(7), 100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070100 - 12 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1649
Abstract
The main aim of this study was to determine the test–retest reliability of an experimental functional test battery: Y-balance test (YBT), single-leg countermovement jump (SLCMJ), single-leg hop for distance (SLH), side-hop (SH), speedy-jump (SJ), agility-T (AT), and lower extremity functional test (LEFT). Secondary [...] Read more.
The main aim of this study was to determine the test–retest reliability of an experimental functional test battery: Y-balance test (YBT), single-leg countermovement jump (SLCMJ), single-leg hop for distance (SLH), side-hop (SH), speedy-jump (SJ), agility-T (AT), and lower extremity functional test (LEFT). Secondary aims were (1) to determine the mean range for the limb symmetry index (LSI) and (2) to detect significant differences in performance between test–retest sessions. Twenty-two healthy adults (14 males, 8 females; age 23.3 ± 3.9) were tested by the same rater during two different sessions (T1–T2), with a seven-day interval, under the same conditions. Reliability analysis showed good-to-excellent reliability (0.89 < ICC < 0.97; 0.80 < α < 0.98) for the test battery. LSI ranged from 95.9 ± 6.7% (SH-T1) to 104.4 ± 12.5% (SLCMJ-T2). Repeated measures ANOVA detected significant performance differences between sessions in the LEFT (p = 0.009) and for non-dominant sides in the SLH (p = 0.015), SH (p = 0.007), and SJ (p = 0.011). The high reliability of the test battery suggests a potential use in clinical sports practice. The LSI range of ≥95% was proposed as a benchmark for healthy adults. Learning effect seems to have played a crucial role in the T2 improvements of the non-dominant side for hop performances (SLH, SH, SJ) and speed performance (LEFT). Full article
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Article
How Relative Age Effects Associate with Football Players’ Market Values: Indicators of Losing Talent and Wasting Money
Sports 2021, 9(7), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070099 - 09 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1152
Abstract
Background: In football, annual age-group categorization leads to relative age effects (RAEs) in talent development. Given such trends, relative age may also associate with market values. This study analyzed the relationship between RAEs and market values of youth players. Methods: Age category, birthdate, [...] Read more.
Background: In football, annual age-group categorization leads to relative age effects (RAEs) in talent development. Given such trends, relative age may also associate with market values. This study analyzed the relationship between RAEs and market values of youth players. Methods: Age category, birthdate, and market values of 11,738 youth male football players were obtained from the “transfermarkt.de” database, which delivers a good proxy for real market values. RAEs were calculated using odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results: Significant RAEs were found across all age-groups (p < 0.05). The largest RAEs occurred in U18 players (Q1 [relatively older] v Q4 [relatively younger] OR = 3.1) ORs decreased with age category, i.e., U19 (2.7), U20 (2.6), U21 (2.4), U22 (2.2), and U23 (1.8). At U19s, Q1 players were associated with significantly higher market values than Q4 players. However, by U21, U22, and U23 RAEs were inversed, with correspondingly higher market values for Q4 players apparent. While large typical RAEs for all playing positions was observed in younger age categories (U18–U20), inversed RAEs were only evident for defenders (small-medium) and for strikers (medium-large) in U21–U23 (not goalkeepers and midfielders). Conclusions: Assuming an equal distribution of football talent exists across annual cohorts, results indicate the selection and market value of young professional players is dynamic. Findings suggest a potential biased selection, and undervaluing of Q4 players in younger age groups, as their representation and market value increased over time. By contrast, the changing representations and market values of Q1 players suggest initial overvaluing in performance and monetary terms. Therefore, this inefficient talent selection and the accompanying waste of money should be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
Article
Local Muscle Endurance and Strength Had Strong Relationship with CrossFit® Open 2020 in Amateur Athletes
Sports 2021, 9(7), 98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070098 - 06 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1739
Abstract
This study analyzed the relationship between anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, power, and local muscle endurance with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. For this, 17 volunteers (6 women) (29.0 ± 7.2 years) completed, on separate weeks, tests for body composition (dual-energy [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the relationship between anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, power, and local muscle endurance with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. For this, 17 volunteers (6 women) (29.0 ± 7.2 years) completed, on separate weeks, tests for body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), maximal oxygen consumption (2 km row test), muscle strength (one repetition maximum (1 RM) back and front squat, isometric peak torque), muscle power (1 RM snatch and clean and jerk) and muscle endurance (Tibana test), which were compared with performance during the CrossFit® Open 2020. Specific tests of localized muscular endurance and muscle strength had the strongest relationship with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. On the other hand, the percentage of fat and cardiorespiratory capacity were not significantly correlated with CrossFit® Open 2020 workout performance. Coaches and practitioners should therefore utilize these findings to assess physical fitness and organize the distribution of the training session based on less developed physical needs, in order to ensure an appropriate physiological adaptation for a given competition. Full article
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Article
Association and Agreement between Reactive Strength Index and Reactive Strength Index-Modified Scores
Sports 2021, 9(7), 97; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070097 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1052
Abstract
Since the reactive strength index (RSI) and reactive strength index-modified (RSI-mod) share similar nomenclature, they are commonly referred as interchangeable measures of agility in the sports research literature. The RSI and RSI-mod are most commonly derived from the performance of depth jumping (DJ) [...] Read more.
Since the reactive strength index (RSI) and reactive strength index-modified (RSI-mod) share similar nomenclature, they are commonly referred as interchangeable measures of agility in the sports research literature. The RSI and RSI-mod are most commonly derived from the performance of depth jumping (DJ) and countermovement jumping (CMJ), respectively. Given that DJ and CMJ are plyometric movements that differ materially from biomechanical and neuromotor perspectives, it is likely that the RSI and RSI-mod measure distinct aspects of neuromuscular function. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the association and agreement between RSI and RSI-mod scores. A mixed-sex sample of NCAA division I basketball athletes (n = 21) and active young adults (n = 26) performed three trials of DJ from drop heights of 0.51, 0.66, and 0.81 m and three trials of countermovement jumping. Using 2-dimensional videography and force platform dynamometry, RSI and RSI-mod scores were estimated from DJ and CMJ trials, respectively. Linear regression revealed moderate associations between RSI and RSI-mod scores (F = 11.0–38.1; R2 = 0.20–0.47; p < 0.001–0.001). Bland–Altman plots revealed significant measurement bias (0.50–0.57) between RSI and RSI-mod scores. Bland–Altman limit of agreement intervals (1.27–1.51) were greater than the mean values for RSI (0.97–1.05) and RSI-mod (0.42) scores, suggesting poor agreement. Moreover, there were significant performance-dependent effects on measurement bias, wherein the difference between and the mean of RSI and RSI-mod scores were positively associated (F = 77.2–108.4; R2 = 0.63–0.71; p < 0.001). The results are evidence that the RSI and RSI-mod cannot be regarded as interchangeable measures of reactive strength. Full article
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Article
Early Drop-Out from Sports and Strategic Learning Skills: A Cross-Country Study in Italian and Spanish Students
Sports 2021, 9(7), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070096 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1330
Abstract
The search for overarching factors involved in both sport and broader lifestyle and achievement domains may help to understand the early drop-out phenomenon. This study aimed to analyze the association between early sport drop-out and strategic learning skills, checking for the individual and [...] Read more.
The search for overarching factors involved in both sport and broader lifestyle and achievement domains may help to understand the early drop-out phenomenon. This study aimed to analyze the association between early sport drop-out and strategic learning skills, checking for the individual and joint role of nationality, school type, gender, age and sport habits. Six hundred and fourteen Italian and Spanish students aged 14–18 years completed two self-assessment questionnaires concerning physical activity, sports habits and learning strategies. Outcomes were analyzed with frequency analysis. Higher affective–motivational strategic learning skills were associated with lower drop-out rates in Italian but not Spanish students. In high schools with an enhanced sports curriculum, drop-out rates were negligible compared to other Italian and Spanish curricula. A lack of persistence in the same sport type was significantly associated with a higher drop-out rate in males but not in female students, who had overall higher drop-out rates. This study suggests that overarching personal skills, cultural characteristics and sports habits may independently and jointly contribute to sport drop-out. Specifically, affective–motivational learning skills may play a key role in sport persistence and in strategies tailored to drop-out prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Talent Identification and Development in Youth Sports)
Article
The Effects of the COVID-19 Environments on Changes in Body Composition in Japanese Elite Fencing Athlete
Sports 2021, 9(7), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070095 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1296
Abstract
The Japanese government declared a state of emergency from 7 April to 25 May to limit people’s movement due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This pandemic negatively affects athletes’ body composition due to inactivity. Therefore, we compared the body composition data (i.e., [...] Read more.
The Japanese government declared a state of emergency from 7 April to 25 May to limit people’s movement due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. This pandemic negatively affects athletes’ body composition due to inactivity. Therefore, we compared the body composition data (i.e., fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM)), of 43 Japanese elite fencers (22 men, 21 women), in September 2019 for baseline, and of 21 (12 men, 9 women) who completed the following measurements in June 2020 (POST; immediately after rescinding the emergency state) and September 2020 (POST-4M; 4-months after rescinding the emergency state). Results at baseline indicate no significant differences in body compositions among fencing disciplines. We also confirmed no significant changes in body mass during the 1-year investigation period in either sex. There were no time-course changes in men’s FFM and FM; however, time-course changes in women’s FM were observed. Compared to the baseline, FM values were significantly higher at POST and then returned to baseline levels at POST-4M in women. In conclusion, the 2-month stay-at-home period due to COVID-19 negatively affected women’s FM changes, but not their FFM or men’s FM. Full article
Article
The Training Characteristics of Recreational-Level Triathletes: Influence on Fatigue and Health
Sports 2021, 9(7), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070094 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
Little is known about how recreational triathletes prepare for an Olympic distance event. The aim of this study was to identify the training characteristics of recreational-level triathletes within the competition period and assess how their preparation for a triathlon influences their health and [...] Read more.
Little is known about how recreational triathletes prepare for an Olympic distance event. The aim of this study was to identify the training characteristics of recreational-level triathletes within the competition period and assess how their preparation for a triathlon influences their health and their levels of fatigue. During the 6 weeks prior to, and the 2 weeks after, an Olympic distance triathlon, nine recreational athletes (five males, four females) completed a daily training log. Participants answered the Daily Analysis of Life Demands Questionnaire (DALDA), the Training Distress Scale (TDS) and the Alberta Swim Fatigue and Health Questionnaire weekly. The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q) was completed at the beginning of the study, on the day before the competition, and at the end of week 8. Training loads were calculated using session-based rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). The data from every week of training was compared to week 1 to determine how athletes’ training and health changed throughout the study. No changes in training loads, duration or training intensity distribution were seen in the weeks leading up to the competition. Training duration was significantly reduced in week 6 (p = 0.041, d = 1.58, 95% CI = 6.9, 421.9), while the number of sessions was reduced in week 6 (Z = 2.32, p = 0.02, ES = 0.88) and week 7 (Z = 2.31, p = 0.02, ES = 0.87). Training was characterized by large weekly variations in training loads and a high training intensity. No significant changes were seen in the DALDA, TDS or REST-Q questionnaire scores throughout the 8 weeks. Despite large spikes in training load and a high overall training intensity, these recreational-level triathletes were able to maintain their health in the 6 weeks of training prior to an Olympic distance triathlon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maximising Triathlon Health and Performance: the State of the Art)
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Article
Sprint and Jump Mechanical Profiles in Academy Rugby League Players: Positional Differences and the Associations between Profiles and Sprint Performance
Sports 2021, 9(7), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070093 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
This cross-sectional study evaluated the sprint and jump mechanical profiles of male academy rugby league players, the differences between positions, and the associations between mechanical profiles and sprint performance. Twenty academy rugby league players performed 40-m sprints and squat jumps at increasing loads [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study evaluated the sprint and jump mechanical profiles of male academy rugby league players, the differences between positions, and the associations between mechanical profiles and sprint performance. Twenty academy rugby league players performed 40-m sprints and squat jumps at increasing loads (0–80 kg) to determine individual mechanical (force-velocity-power) and performance variables. The mechanical variables (absolute and relative theoretical maximal force-velocity-power, force-velocity linear relationship, and mechanical efficiency) were determined from the mechanical profiles. Forwards had significantly (p < 0.05) greater vertical and horizontal force, momentum but jumped lower (unloaded) and were slower than backs. No athlete presented an optimal jump profile. No associations were found between jump and sprint mechanical variables. Absolute theoretical maximal vertical force significantly (p < 0.05) correlated (r = 0.71–0.77) with sprint momentum. Moderate (r = −0.47) to near-perfect (r = 1.00) significant associations (p < 0.05) were found between sprint mechanical and performance variables. The largest associations shifted from maximum relative horizontal force-power generation and application to maximum velocity capabilities and force application at high velocities as distance increased. The jump and sprint mechanical profiles appear to provide distinctive and highly variable information about academy rugby league players’ sprint and jump capacities. Associations between mechanical variables and sprint performance suggest horizontal and vertical profiles differ and should be trained accordingly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strength and Conditioning and Performance Monitoring in Sports)
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Article
Effects of Moderate- versus Mixed-Intensity Training on VO2peak in Young Well-Trained Rowers
Sports 2021, 9(7), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070092 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
The effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and a combination of MICT and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on rowing performance and VO2peak were investigated in young athletes. Seventeen well-trained rowers (aged 15 ± 1.3 years) were randomly allocated to an intervention [...] Read more.
The effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and a combination of MICT and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on rowing performance and VO2peak were investigated in young athletes. Seventeen well-trained rowers (aged 15 ± 1.3 years) were randomly allocated to an intervention (IG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 7). During 8 weeks, both groups took part in the regular rowing training (3×/week MICT, 70–90 min, 65–70% of HRpeak + 2×/week resistance training). The IG completed an additional high-intensity interval training twice weekly (2 × 4 × 2 min at ≈95% of HRpeak, 60 s rest). Instead of the HIIT, the CG completed two more MICT sessions (70–90 min, 65–70% of HRpeak). Before and after the intervention, a 2000 m time trial and an exercise test were performed. The IG showed a significant improvement (p = 0.001) regarding the absolute rowing time in the graded exercise test. Furthermore, the intervention group showed a significant increase in relative VO2peak (p = 0.023), a significant increase in absolute VO2peak (p = 0.036), and a significant improvement in the 2000 m time trail (p = 0.003). No significant changes could be detected in the CG. The interaction effects were not significant. A mixed-intensity training, including HIIT, was beneficial on rowing performance and VO2peak in highly trained athletes. Full article
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Article
Effect of Daily Physical Activity on Sleep Characteristics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Sports 2021, 9(7), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070091 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1099
Abstract
Background. Sleep problems have been reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One of the methods proposed to improve sleep characteristics is based on physical activity (PA). Objective. To assess characteristics of sleep and the effect of PA level on [...] Read more.
Background. Sleep problems have been reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). One of the methods proposed to improve sleep characteristics is based on physical activity (PA). Objective. To assess characteristics of sleep and the effect of PA level on sleep quality in children with ASD compared to controls. Methods. Fifty boys with ASD (ASD; 10.8 ± 2.6 years) and 18 controls (CONT, 10.1 ± 2.2 years) wore an accelerometer device for five consecutive days to obtain measures of activity and sleep characteristics. Results. Some significant differences were reported between ASD and CONT groups. Wake-up time resistance was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ASD. Total time for PA, and daily steps number were significantly lower in the ASD group (p < 0.05). Time for sedentary behavior was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in the ASD group. Using a principal component analysis and an agglomerative hierarchical analysis, we observed three clusters. Two showed the same poor-quality indices of sleep but two opposing profiles of PA, either an insufficient PA volume (cluster 1, Total time PA = 75.1 min; Daily steps: 7704) or an important PA volume (cluster 3, Total time PA = 222.1 min; Daily steps: 17,164). Cluster 2 was characterized by moderate participation in PA and children with the best sleep indices (Total time PA = 166.8 min; Daily steps: 12,718). Conclusion. The dose–response effect of exercise on sleep may indicate large individual differences but the present findings are important to prevent sedentary behaviors or to correct over-activity that could be detrimental to the sleep quality in children with ASD. Full article
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Article
Having a Positive Relationship to Physical Activity: Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction and Age as Predictors for Students’ Enjoyment in Physical Education
Sports 2021, 9(7), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070090 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 984
Abstract
Physical activity is fundamental to prevent common illnesses in youth and research shows that students who perceive enjoyment in physical education (PE) have a more physically active lifestyle. This study aims to identify psychological antecedents of student enjoyment in PE. We addressed this [...] Read more.
Physical activity is fundamental to prevent common illnesses in youth and research shows that students who perceive enjoyment in physical education (PE) have a more physically active lifestyle. This study aims to identify psychological antecedents of student enjoyment in PE. We addressed this by assessing aspects of self-determination theory (SDT), including the extent of autonomy-supportive teaching in PE (reported by teachers), the satisfaction of students’ basic psychological needs, and student age (reported by students), via questionnaires. Correlational and multiple linear regression analyses of the collected data of N = 170 students (M = 14.3 ± 2.20, 10–19 years of age) and N = 10 teachers show that autonomy support is related to autonomy satisfaction in students (r = 0.20, p < 0.01). In turn, student perception of autonomy correlates with competence (r = 0.64, p < 0.001) and belonging (r = 0.37, p < 0.001). All three basic psychological needs predict enjoyment in PE (F(1, 163) = 19.59, R2 = 0.68, p < 0.01). Additional analyses show that higher student age predicts a decrease in enjoyment (ΔR2 = 0.04, B = −0.73, β = −0.21, p < 0.01). Thus, student enjoyment in PE, as a foundation for a physically active lifestyle, can help to prevent common illnesses by satisfying basic psychological needs in PE. Full article
Review
How Can Biomechanics Improve Physical Preparation and Performance in Paralympic Athletes? A Narrative Review
Sports 2021, 9(7), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070089 - 24 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1481
Abstract
Recent research in Paralympic biomechanics has offered opportunities for coaches, athletes, and sports practitioners to optimize training and performance, and recent systematic reviews have served to summarize the state of the evidence connecting biomechanics to Paralympic performance. This narrative review serves to provide [...] Read more.
Recent research in Paralympic biomechanics has offered opportunities for coaches, athletes, and sports practitioners to optimize training and performance, and recent systematic reviews have served to summarize the state of the evidence connecting biomechanics to Paralympic performance. This narrative review serves to provide a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the evidence related to biomechanics and Paralympic performance published since 2016. The main themes within this review focus on sport-specific body posture: the standing, sitting, and horizontal positions of current summer Paralympic sports. For standing sports, sprint and jump mechanics were assessed in athletes with cerebral palsy and in lower-limb amputee athletes using running-specific prostheses. Our findings suggest that running and jumping-specific prostheses should be ‘tuned’ to each athlete depending on specific event demands to optimize performance. Standing sports were also inclusive to athletes with visual impairments. Sitting sports comprise of athletes performing on a bike, in a wheelchair (WC), or in a boat. WC configuration is deemed an important consideration for injury prevention, mobility, and performance. Other sitting sports like hand-cycling, rowing, and canoeing/kayaking should focus on specific sitting positions (e.g., arm-crank position, grip, or seat configuration) and ways to reduce aero/hydrodynamic drag. Para-swimming practitioners should consider athlete-specific impairments, including asymmetrical anthropometrics, on the swim-start and free-swim velocities, with special considerations for drag factors. Taken together, we provide practitioners working in Paralympic sport with specific considerations on disability and event-specific training modalities and equipment configurations to optimize performance from a biomechanical perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Researching Sports Biomechanics for Disabled People)
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Article
A Novel Approach to 1RM Prediction Using the Load-Velocity Profile: A Comparison of Models
Sports 2021, 9(7), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports9070088 - 22 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2046
Abstract
The study aim was to compare different predictive models in one repetition maximum (1RM) estimation from load-velocity profile (LVP) data. Fourteen strength-trained men underwent initial 1RMs in the free-weight back squat, followed by two LVPs, over three sessions. Profiles were constructed via a [...] Read more.
The study aim was to compare different predictive models in one repetition maximum (1RM) estimation from load-velocity profile (LVP) data. Fourteen strength-trained men underwent initial 1RMs in the free-weight back squat, followed by two LVPs, over three sessions. Profiles were constructed via a combined method (jump squat (0 load, 30–60% 1RM) + back squat (70–100% 1RM)) or back squat only (0 load, 30–100% 1RM) in 10% increments. Quadratic and linear regression modeling was applied to the data to estimate 80% 1RM (kg) using 80% 1RM mean velocity identified in LVP one as the reference point, with load (kg), then extrapolated to predict 1RM. The 1RM prediction was based on LVP two data and analyzed via analysis of variance, effect size (g/ηp2), Pearson correlation coefficients (r), paired t-tests, standard error of the estimate (SEE), and limits of agreement (LOA). p < 0.05. All models reported systematic bias < 10 kg, r > 0.97, and SEE < 5 kg, however, all linear models were significantly different from measured 1RM (p = 0.015 <0.001). Significant differences were observed between quadratic and linear models for combined (p < 0.001; ηp2 = 0.90) and back squat (p = 0.004, ηp2 = 0.35) methods. Significant differences were observed between exercises when applying linear modeling (p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.67–0.80), but not quadratic (p = 0.632–0.929, ηp2 = 0.001–0.18). Quadratic modeling employing the combined method rendered the greatest predictive validity. Practitioners should therefore utilize this method when looking to predict daily 1RMs as a means of load autoregulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives in Resistance Training)
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