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Article

Anaerobic Digestion and Removal of Sulfamethoxazole, Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Their Antibiotic Resistance Genes in a Full-Scale Biogas Plant

1
Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR), 00010 Montelibretti, Italy
2
Institute of Polar Sciences, National Research Council (ISP-CNR), 00010 Montelibretti, Italy
3
Department of Energy Technologies, Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA), 00123 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xuxiang Zhang
Received: 24 March 2021 / Revised: 23 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Substances and Nitrogen Cycle in Agro-Ecosystems)
Anaerobic digestion is one of the best ways to re-use animal manure and agricultural residues, through the production of combustible biogas and digestate. However, the use of antibiotics for preventing and treating animal diseases and, consequently, their residual concentrations in manure, could introduce them into anaerobic digesters. If the digestate is applied as a soil fertilizer, antibiotic residues and/or their corresponding antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) could reach soil ecosystems. This work investigated three common soil emerging contaminants, i.e., sulfamethoxazole (SMX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), enrofloxacin (ENR), their ARGs sul1, sul2, qnrS, qepA, aac-(6′)-Ib-cr and the mobile genetic element intI1, for one year in a full scale anaerobic plant. Six samplings were performed in line with the 45-day hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the anaerobic plant, by collecting input and output samples. The overall results show both antibiotics and ARGs decreased during the anaerobic digestion process. In particular, SMX was degraded by up to 100%, ENR up to 84% and CIP up to 92%, depending on the sampling time. In a similar way, all ARGs declined significantly (up to 80%) in the digestate samples. This work shows how anaerobic digestion can be a promising practice for lowering antibiotic residues and ARGs in soil. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; degradation; ARGs; fluoroquinolones; sulfonamides; digestate; zootechnical waste antibiotics; degradation; ARGs; fluoroquinolones; sulfonamides; digestate; zootechnical waste
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MDPI and ACS Style

Visca, A.; Barra Caracciolo, A.; Grenni, P.; Patrolecco, L.; Rauseo, J.; Massini, G.; Mazzurco Miritana, V.; Spataro, F. Anaerobic Digestion and Removal of Sulfamethoxazole, Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Their Antibiotic Resistance Genes in a Full-Scale Biogas Plant. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 502. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050502

AMA Style

Visca A, Barra Caracciolo A, Grenni P, Patrolecco L, Rauseo J, Massini G, Mazzurco Miritana V, Spataro F. Anaerobic Digestion and Removal of Sulfamethoxazole, Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Their Antibiotic Resistance Genes in a Full-Scale Biogas Plant. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(5):502. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050502

Chicago/Turabian Style

Visca, Andrea, Anna Barra Caracciolo, Paola Grenni, Luisa Patrolecco, Jasmin Rauseo, Giulia Massini, Valentina Mazzurco Miritana, and Francesca Spataro. 2021. "Anaerobic Digestion and Removal of Sulfamethoxazole, Enrofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Their Antibiotic Resistance Genes in a Full-Scale Biogas Plant" Antibiotics 10, no. 5: 502. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10050502

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