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Article

Development of Resistance in Escherichia coli ATCC25922 under Exposure of Sub-Inhibitory Concentration of Olaquindox

1
College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
2
MOA Laboratory for Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 September 2020 / Revised: 7 October 2020 / Accepted: 8 October 2020 / Published: 10 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: The Final Frontier)
Quinoxaline1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) are a class of important antibacterial drugs of veterinary use, of which the drug resistance mechanism has not yet been clearly explained. This study investigated the molecular mechanism of development of resistance in Escherichia coli (E. coli) under the pressure of sub-inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of olaquindox (OLA), a representative QdNOs drug. In vitro challenge of E. coli with 1/100× MIC to 1/2× MIC of OLA showed that the bacteria needed a longer time to develop resistance and could only achieve low to moderate levels of resistance as well as form weak biofilms. The transcriptomic and genomic profiles of the resistant E. coli induced by sub-MIC of OLA demonstrated that genes involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidation-reduction process, biofilm formation, and efflux pumps were up-regulated, while genes involved in DNA repair and outer membrane porin were down-regulated. Mutation rates were significantly increased in the sub-MIC OLA-treated bacteria and the mutated genes were mainly involved in the oxidation-reduction process, DNA repair, and replication. The SNPs were found in degQ, ks71A, vgrG, bigA, cusA, and DR76-4702 genes, which were covered in both transcriptomic and genomic profiles. This study provides new insights into the resistance mechanism of QdNOs and increases the current data pertaining to the development of bacterial resistance under the stress of antibacterials at sub-MIC concentrations. View Full-Text
Keywords: E. coli; olaquindox; resistance; sub-inhibitory concentration; transcriptome sequencing; whole genome sequencing E. coli; olaquindox; resistance; sub-inhibitory concentration; transcriptome sequencing; whole genome sequencing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gu, Y.; Wang, S.; Huang, L.; Sa, W.; Li, J.; Huang, J.; Dai, M.; Cheng, G. Development of Resistance in Escherichia coli ATCC25922 under Exposure of Sub-Inhibitory Concentration of Olaquindox. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 791. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110791

AMA Style

Gu Y, Wang S, Huang L, Sa W, Li J, Huang J, Dai M, Cheng G. Development of Resistance in Escherichia coli ATCC25922 under Exposure of Sub-Inhibitory Concentration of Olaquindox. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(11):791. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110791

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gu, Yufeng, Shuge Wang, Lulu Huang, Wei Sa, Jun Li, Junhong Huang, Menghong Dai, and Guyue Cheng. 2020. "Development of Resistance in Escherichia coli ATCC25922 under Exposure of Sub-Inhibitory Concentration of Olaquindox" Antibiotics 9, no. 11: 791. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9110791

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