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Open AccessReview

The Current Status of the Alternative Use to Antibiotics in Poultry Production: An African Perspective

1
Department of Agriculture and Animal Health, College of Agriculture and Environmental Science, University of South Africa, Florida 1710, South Africa
2
Department of Zoology and Entomology, Mammal Research Institute, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Hatfield 0028, South Africa
3
Department of Agricultural Economics and Animal Production, University of Limpopo, Sovenga 0727, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2020 / Revised: 20 August 2020 / Accepted: 25 August 2020 / Published: 11 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Usage of Antibiotic in Agriculture and Animal Farming)
Over the years the growth and health of food-producing animals have been enhanced by the use of antibiotics. These have helped reduce on-farm mortalities, lower incidences of diseases and more importantly improve productivity. Generally, the utilization of antibiotics in feed has been reevaluated since bacterial pathogens have established and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. Multiple countries have introduced bans or severe restrictions on the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics. This has therefore warranted the urgent need for alternatives. Africa is facing its own challenges as it has been reported to be one of the continents with the highest number of foodborne diseases with approximately 91 million related diseases and 137,000 death per annum. Stakeholder and policy direction has been put in place to curb this escalation; however, the problem persists. The use of alternatives has been recommended and some successfully used in other countries as well as Africa, including pro- and prebiotics and phytochemicals. This then leads to the core aim of this review which is to (1) determine the extent to which antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have affected Africa, (2) assess the current measures put in place by Africa to reduces antimicrobial resistance and finally (3) explore the alternative use of antibiotics in poultry production. Improved sanitary conditions and farm biosecurity are important alternatives that could be adopted by farmers instead of depending on antibiotic drugs for disease control and prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial-resistance; prebiotic; probiotic; poultry; salmonella; tetracycline antimicrobial-resistance; prebiotic; probiotic; poultry; salmonella; tetracycline
MDPI and ACS Style

Andrew Selaledi, L.; Mohammed Hassan, Z.; Manyelo, T.G.; Mabelebele, M. The Current Status of the Alternative Use to Antibiotics in Poultry Production: An African Perspective. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 594. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090594

AMA Style

Andrew Selaledi L, Mohammed Hassan Z, Manyelo TG, Mabelebele M. The Current Status of the Alternative Use to Antibiotics in Poultry Production: An African Perspective. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(9):594. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090594

Chicago/Turabian Style

Andrew Selaledi, Letlhogonolo; Mohammed Hassan, Zahra; Manyelo, Tlou G.; Mabelebele, Monnye. 2020. "The Current Status of the Alternative Use to Antibiotics in Poultry Production: An African Perspective" Antibiotics 9, no. 9: 594. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics9090594

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