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Resources, Volume 10, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 8 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are concentrated in the Arctic, with 30% of the world’s undiscovered natural gas and 13% of oil. Associated petroleum gas, natural gas, and gas condensate could expand the scope of their application. Natural gas is the main raw material for the production of hydrogen and ammonia, the oxidation of which does not release CO2. This article presents conceptual Gas-To-Chem solutions for the development of Arctic oil and gas condensate fields. These solutions take into account the current trends to reduce the carbon footprint of products and the commodity formation exchanges for gas chemistry products as the course is set toward hydrogen energy creation. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Sustainable Use of Petrothermal Resources—A Review of the Geological Conditions in Poland
Resources 2021, 10(1), 8; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10010008 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
This article considers the possibility of using unconventional geothermal resources in enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) under Polish geological conditions. In order to obtain additional environmental benefits, EGS systems using CO2 as a medium were analyzed. In addition to the production of clean [...] Read more.
This article considers the possibility of using unconventional geothermal resources in enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) under Polish geological conditions. In order to obtain additional environmental benefits, EGS systems using CO2 as a medium were analyzed. In addition to the production of clean energy, this allows for the geological storage of CO2 during the energy production process. The aim of this paper is to analyze the geological conditions for EGS-CO2 systems. Criteria is established for selecting an optimal location for the implementation of the first pilot installation of this type in Poland. Due to the depth of deposition and predicted thermal and petrophysical parameters, the optimal location occurs in sedimentary rocks in the central part of the Polish Lowland (Krośniewice-Kutno area). However, other favorable zones meeting the established criteria for simultaneous energy production and CO2 sequestration have been identified in northwestern parts of Poland (Szczecin Trough) and in southern Poland, in the area of the Carpathian Foredeep (Upper Silesia region). Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Essential Oils and Their Application on Active Packaging Systems: A Review
Resources 2021, 10(1), 7; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10010007 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 739
Abstract
The food industry is continuously evolving through the application of innovative tools and ingredients towards more effective, safe, natural and ecofriendly solutions to satisfy the demands of the costumers. In this context, natural sources (i.e., leaves, seeds, peels or unused pulp) can entail [...] Read more.
The food industry is continuously evolving through the application of innovative tools and ingredients towards more effective, safe, natural and ecofriendly solutions to satisfy the demands of the costumers. In this context, natural sources (i.e., leaves, seeds, peels or unused pulp) can entail a valuable source of compounds, such as essential oils (EOs), with recognized antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that can be used as natural additives in packaging applications. The current trend is the incorporation of EOs into diverse kinds of biodegradable materials, such as edible films, thus developing active packaging systems with improved preservation properties that can offer benefits to both the food and packaging industry by reducing food waste and improving the management of packaging waste. EOs may be added into the packaging material as free or encapsulated molecules, where, especially this last option, has been revealed as very promising. The addition of these lipophilic compounds provides to the end-product various bioactivities of interest, which can eventually extend the shelf-life of the product by preventing food spoilage. Pairing biodegradable packaging with EOs extracted from natural agro-industrial by-products can lead to a more sustainable food industry. Recent knowledge and advances on this issue will be reviewed in the present work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Accessibility of Selected Key Non-Metallic Mineral Deposits in the Environmental and Social Context in Poland
Resources 2021, 10(1), 6; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10010006 - 15 Jan 2021
Viewed by 435
Abstract
The increase in demand for mineral resources, the depletion of the resources (deposits) and numerous environmental and social limitations concerning their utilization led to research on the assessment of environmental and the social availability of compact raw material deposits classified as key raw [...] Read more.
The increase in demand for mineral resources, the depletion of the resources (deposits) and numerous environmental and social limitations concerning their utilization led to research on the assessment of environmental and the social availability of compact raw material deposits classified as key raw materials. The methodology of the research is based on the proposed environmental and social assessment procedure for the availability of deposits, in which, based on the constraints resulting from legal, environmental and planning conditions, four deposit availability classes have been determined: class I—very well accessible deposit, class II—well accessible deposit, class III—accessible deposit and class IV—inaccessible deposit. Ultimately, seven variables influencing the availability of the deposit were selected for the assessment, i.e., forms of nature protection, forests with protective functions, zones of indirect protection of groundwater and surface water intakes, main groundwater reservoirs, surface water reservoirs, rivers, streams and canals, buildings and infrastructure and road and railway. The research was carried out for 244 deposits located in Poland (Central Europe) with total resources of over 7.6 billion tons. The availability of deposits was analyzed for two variants. The first one included all the variables. The second variant, on the other hand, excluded railway infrastructure due to the fact that 90% of the compact raw materials transport is carried out by trucks. Finally, in variant I of the assessment, three classes of deposit availability were obtained: class IV inaccessible deposits (146 deposits), class III available deposits (93 deposits), and class II well-accessible deposits (5 deposits). In variant II four classes of deposit availability were obtained: class IV inaccessible deposits (145 deposits), class III available deposits (68 deposits), class II well-accessible deposits (28 deposits) and class I deposits very easily accessible (3 deposits). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mineral Deposit Safeguarding in the EU)
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Open AccessArticle
Designing on the Basis of Recycling-Metallurgy Possibilities: Material-Specific Rules and Standards for “Anti-Dissipative” Products
Resources 2021, 10(1), 5; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10010005 - 13 Jan 2021
Viewed by 622
Abstract
The demand for metals from the entire periodic table is currently increasing due to the ongoing digitalization. However, their use within electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) poses problems as they cannot be recovered sufficiently in the end-of-life (EoL) phase. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
The demand for metals from the entire periodic table is currently increasing due to the ongoing digitalization. However, their use within electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) poses problems as they cannot be recovered sufficiently in the end-of-life (EoL) phase. In this paper, we address the unleashed dissipation of metals caused by the design of EEE for which no globally established recycling technology exists. We describe the European Union’s (EU) plan to strive for a circular economy (CE) as a political response to tackle this challenge. However, there is a lack of feedback from a design perspective. It is still unknown what the implications for products would be if politics were to take the path of a CE at the level of metals. To provide clarification in this respect, a case study for indium is presented and linked to its corresponding recycling-metallurgy of zinc and lead. As a result, a first material-specific rule on the design of so-called “anti-dissipative” products is derived, which actually supports designing EEE with recycling in mind and represents an already achieved CE on the material level. In addition, the design of electrotechnical standardization is being introduced. As a promising tool, it addresses the multi-dimensional problems of recovering metals from urban ores and assists in the challenge of enhancing recycling rates. Extending the focus to other recycling-metallurgy besides zinc and lead in further research would enable the scope for material-specific rules to be widened. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recovery of Metals from Alternative and Urban Ores)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of the COVID-19 Crisis on Steel Production in Poland Compared to the Financial Crisis of 2009 and to Boom Periods in the Market
Resources 2021, 10(1), 4; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10010004 - 08 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 488
Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the volume of steel production in Poland during the COVID-19 crisis in the first half of 2020 in comparison to the volume of steel production during the financial crisis initiated in the US during the period 2007–2008, [...] Read more.
This paper presents an analysis of the volume of steel production in Poland during the COVID-19 crisis in the first half of 2020 in comparison to the volume of steel production during the financial crisis initiated in the US during the period 2007–2008, whose effects, in the form of a large decrease in steel production, were seen in 2009 in Poland. A comparison is also made to periods of prosperity in 2004, 2007, and 2017 (when there was a good economic situation in the steel market in Poland). The selection of the time period—the first half of 2020—was based on the emergence of a new situation in the economy, which was lockdown. The aim of the analysis is to determine the impact of the COVID-19 situation on the steel market (volume of steel production) in Poland. The analysis performed could help entrepreneurs manage their companies during the COVID-19 crisis. This paper belongs to the category of research work. The statistical analysis was realized regarding steel production in Poland. Three periods were analyzed: The first half of 2020—the period termed the COVID-19 crisis; the year 2019—the year of a large decrease in steel production in Poland caused by the world financial crisis; and periods of prosperity in the steel market—the years 2004, 2007, and 2017 (periods before crises). The analysis shows that, in order to assess the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the functioning of enterprises or industries, it is necessary to analyze the situation and compare it with other situations in the past. Moreover, crisis management in the COVID-19 situation must be highly rationalized and real, and the various industrial sectors and companies forming them should adapt this process to their own situation. Results: On the basis of the statistical data, it was found that, in the short term (months), the production of steel during the COVID-19 crisis was a little higher than in the financial crisis of 2009 (excluding steel production in June 2020), and lower than during the boom in the steel market (the comparison to the periods when there was a boom in the Polish steel market was made to show the dynamics of decline). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Responsible Resource Management in Micro and Macro Scale)
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Open AccessReview
New Concepts of Hydrogen Production and Storage in Arctic Region
Resources 2021, 10(1), 3; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10010003 - 07 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 596
Abstract
The development of markets for low-carbon energy sources requires reconsideration of issues related to extraction and use of oil and gas. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are concentrated in Arctic territories, e.g., 30% of the world’s undiscovered natural gas reserves and 13% of oil. [...] Read more.
The development of markets for low-carbon energy sources requires reconsideration of issues related to extraction and use of oil and gas. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are concentrated in Arctic territories, e.g., 30% of the world’s undiscovered natural gas reserves and 13% of oil. Associated petroleum gas, natural gas and gas condensate could be able to expand the scope of their applications. Natural gas is the main raw material for the production of hydrogen and ammonia, which are considered promising primary energy resources of the future, the oxidation of which does not release CO2. Complex components contained in associated petroleum gas and gas condensate are valuable chemical raw materials to be used in a wide range of applications. This article presents conceptual Gas-To-Chem solutions for the development of Arctic oil and gas condensate fields, taking into account the current trends to reduce the carbon footprint of products, the formation of commodity exchanges for gas chemistry products, as well as the course towards the creation of hydrogen energy. The concept is based on modern gas chemical technologies with an emphasis on the production of products with high added value and low carbon footprint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Provision of the Sustainable Development under Global Shocks)
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Open AccessArticle
A Short-Time Repeat TLS Survey to Estimate Rates of Glacier Retreat and Patterns of Forefield Development (Case Study: Scottbreen, SW Svalbard)
Resources 2021, 10(1), 2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10010002 - 25 Dec 2020
Viewed by 509
Abstract
The study presents findings from comparative analyses of high-resolution differential digital elevation models (DEM of Difference—DoD) based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys. The research was conducted on the 0.2 km2 Scottbreen valley glacier foreland located in the north-western part of Wedel-Jarlsberg [...] Read more.
The study presents findings from comparative analyses of high-resolution differential digital elevation models (DEM of Difference—DoD) based on terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) surveys. The research was conducted on the 0.2 km2 Scottbreen valley glacier foreland located in the north-western part of Wedel-Jarlsberg Land (Svalbard) in August of 2013. The comparison between DTMs at 3-week intervals made it possible to identify erosion and depositional areas, as well as the volume of the melting glacier’s terminus. It showed a considerable recession rate of the Scottbreen (20 m year−1) while its forefield was being reshaped by the proglacial Scott River. A study area of 205,389 m2, 31% of which is occupied by the glacier (clear ice zone), was included in the repeated TLS survey, which was performed from five permanent scan station points (registered on the basis of five target points—TP). The resultant point clouds with a density ranging from 91 to 336 pt m−2 were converted into DEMs (at a spacing of 0.1 m). They were then put together to identify erosion and depositional areas using Geomorphic Change Detection Software (GCD). During the 3-week interval, the retreat of the glacier’s snout ranged from 3 to 9 m (mean of 5 m), which was accompanied by an average lowering of the surface by up to 0.86 m (±0.03 m) and a decrease of ice volume by 53,475 m3 (±1761 m3). The deglaciated area increased by 4549 m2 (~5%) as a result of the recession, which resulted in an extensive reshaping of the recently deglaciated area. The DEM of Difference (DoD) analyses showed the following: (i) lowering of the glacial surface by melting and ii) predominance of deposition in the glacier’s marginal zone. In fact, 17,570 m3 (±1172 m3) of sediments were deposited in the glacier forefield (41,451 m2). Also, the erosion of sediment layers having a volume of 11,974 m3 (±1313 m3) covered an area equal to 46,429 m2 (53%). This occurrence was primarily based on the washing away of banks and the deepening of proglacial stream beds, as well as the washing away of the lower parts of moraine hillocks and outwash fans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Extreme Hydrometeorological Events)
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Open AccessArticle
Parameters of Sustainable Development: Case of Arctic Liquefied Natural Gas Projects
Resources 2021, 10(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/resources10010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Effective management of the social and economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation is today a significant scientific and practical task. It requires an integrated approach to meet the expectations of the state, business and society. The main drivers of [...] Read more.
Effective management of the social and economic development of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation is today a significant scientific and practical task. It requires an integrated approach to meet the expectations of the state, business and society. The main drivers of growth for remote Arctic territories are large investment projects, which not only create production and sectorial results, but also stimulate the development of related sectors of the economy. Additionally, they contribute to the formation of modern infrastructure in the region and create conditions for the broad introduction of innovative technologies. The current problem with territorial development strategic planning is the assessment of the results that have been achieved. This includes approved lists of indicators that do not allow for a full assessment of the impact of the implemented projects. Assessment on the achievement of the region goals is also murky. This indicates a lack of consistency in regional development management. This article defines the importance of the indicators for an assessment of sustainable development management. The model of achieving external effects in project activities is described. The concept of sustainability of large-capacity complexes for the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is also formulated. Based on the needs of micro- and macro-environment projects, a list of indicators for assessing the sustainability of LNG projects has been proposed. On the basis of the proposed indicator list, a sustainability analysis of three Arctic LNG projects was carried out. Based on the example of LNG production, it was concluded that approaches to assessing the sustainable socio-economic development of the Arctic region and its industrial systems are interrelated, but there are differences between them. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resource Provision of the Sustainable Development under Global Shocks)
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