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Article

A Population Based Study of Liver Function amongst Adults with Hyperuricemia and Gout in the United States

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Larkin University, Miami, FL 33169, USA
2
Clinical and Administrative Sciences, Roosevelt University College of Science, Health and Pharmacy, Schaumburg, IL 60173, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ludovico Abenavoli
Received: 14 July 2021 / Revised: 11 September 2021 / Accepted: 13 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
To examine the association between uric acid levels and liver enzyme functions amongst adults with hyperuricemia and gout in the United States. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data from 2007 to 2016 was used to study the research objective. Data were analyzed for descriptive statistics and for differences using the t test, Chi-square test and ANOVA. A regression analysis was performed to determine association between demographics and liver enzymes. A p value of <0.05 or <0.001 was considered statistically significant. A total of 14,946 adults (≥20 yrs.) were included in this study. Sample mean age was 49 ± 0.15 yrs., and 54% were female. Overall, 15% adults had elevated uric acid levels (≥6.8 mg/dL), men had significantly higher uric acid levels than women (6 mg/dL vs. 4.8 mg/dL). High uric acid levels were associated with more than two times higher odds of elevated ALT, AST and GGT (p < 0.001). Similarly, gender-based target uric acid values were associated with two-fold increased odds of GGT, over one-and-a-half fold higher odds of ALT and AST (p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed significant association between age, gender, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and hypertension and ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin and GGT (p < 0.001). Adults with hyperuricemia and gout are most likely to develop liver dysfunctions and suffer associated morbidities. Such patients need to be appropriately monitored and managed for their liver functions and to prevent associated morbidities. View Full-Text
Keywords: hyperuricemia; gout; NHANES; liver dysfunction; association hyperuricemia; gout; NHANES; liver dysfunction; association
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MDPI and ACS Style

Deb, S.; Sakharkar, P. A Population Based Study of Liver Function amongst Adults with Hyperuricemia and Gout in the United States. Diseases 2021, 9, 61. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9030061

AMA Style

Deb S, Sakharkar P. A Population Based Study of Liver Function amongst Adults with Hyperuricemia and Gout in the United States. Diseases. 2021; 9(3):61. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9030061

Chicago/Turabian Style

Deb, Subrata, and Prashant Sakharkar. 2021. "A Population Based Study of Liver Function amongst Adults with Hyperuricemia and Gout in the United States" Diseases 9, no. 3: 61. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases9030061

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