2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Legal Framework
2.1.1. Constitutional Regulations
2.1.2. Archaeological Legislation
2.1.3. Legislation on Public Utilities
2.1.4. Building Regulations
2.2. Study Area
2.2.1. Legislation on the Establishment of the Subway Line
2.2.2. Building Regulations
2.2.3. Drawings and Basemaps
- Longitudinal section drawing of subway station, provided by Attiko Metro S.A. (Athens, Greece) (Figure 4).
- As PLRs constitute mainly legal (not materialized, invisible) spaces, their presentation in 3D maps, combined with general stipulations on the vertical extent of ownership, makes it possible to address ambiguities of RRRs’ application in 3D space. Furthermore, 3D presentation of PLRs allows interested parties to understand the interrelation between different legal spaces or legal and physical spaces, as well as each one’s impact on the other. This can also be derived from the examined case study, comparing the exported 3D model with existing cadastral and spatial data recordings that are presented in Figure 6. Cadastral documentation only presents land parcels on the examined area, along with the real property rights that apply to them in 2D, while no reference is made to the archaeological restrictions imposed. In case of real property expropriation for archaeological purposes, registration of the related administrative acts is required. Similarly, the municipal geoportal is limited in presenting the different building types, also including land parcels and building blocks. Places of archaeological interest are only presented as points.
- As mentioned above, current legislation cannot address complex situations of overlapping RRRs, given both the absolute character of the right of ownership and legal concentration on land parcels as 2D entities. This is also clear within the examined case study, as protection of the archaeological findings traced within the course of the subway line resulted in a long juridical dispute which has also led to delay in the project’s completion.
- Current recording of archaeological PLRs mostly focuses on monuments or places of archaeological interest and not on the restrictions that are imposed on land. Even when such provision exists, it is limited to restrictions in the horizontal plane. In the examined case study, the combination of the archaeological reports on the designated subway route with establishment of 3D archaeological protection zones would accelerate the resolving of differences regarding preservation in situ, burial, or the relocation of monuments.
- 3D modeling of PLRs required the compilation of a variety of legal and cartographic documentation not available from a single source. Furthermore, given the significant number of legal amendments, tracing all legal documents related to a specific PLR or to a specific PLR applying to a specific region can become a difficult task.
- The implementation of 3D PLR models allows for the detailed representation of the legal space where each PLR applies, which contributes to non-ambiguous presentation of rights on land. Results of the 3D model of the examined case study, in contrast to existing cartographic documentation (Figure 6), clearly present differences in the delimitation of each real property, occupied 3D space by physical objects or 3D space encumbered by legal regulations. It needs to be noted that Greek subways are mainly established below state, municipal, or common use space, otherwise the involved, privately owned land parcels are expropriated by the state. Therefore, the whole process is facilitated as it is not affected by complications deriving from co-ownership of land parcels or limited real rights that may be imposed on land. It is evident that efficiency of 3D models would be significantly increased if combined with 3D subdivision or the encumbering of real property.
4.1. Constitutional Regulations
- Constitutional stipulations on the protection of ownership need to be brought in line with stipulations concerning the exploitation of mines, quarries, underground resources, archaeological sites and monuments. The Greek Constitution sets the criterion of public benefit to either deprive privately owned land, or to oblige parcel owners to withstand boring activities that do not inhibit normal exploitation of surface parcel real property. Legislation on establishment of infrastructures, as well as Greek Civil Code, are in accord with constitutional stipulations. However, there is no specific definition of “normal exploitation” of real property. When the exploitation of a real property over a public utility needs to expand at a new, greater depth, this results either in the cancelling of planned exploitation, or in the expropriation of the surface parcel.
- In combination with the above, although the agencies responsible for the establishment and management of underground utilities benefit from their exploitation, surface parcel owners face restrictions on exercising to the fullest extent their ownership rights with no relative benefit.
- On the other hand, constitutional stipulations, both in article 18 and 24, as mentioned in Section 2.1.1, set the scene for stratification of real property, as they refer to “other necessary deprivation of free use and enjoyment of real property”, as well as to provisions of “restrictive measures of private ownership necessary”. Delays in infrastructure projects derive from the lack of expropriation funds, as well as from the reluctance of (surface) parcel owners to be deprived of their property (or objections to compensation values). This can be more easily addressed with restrictions that apply in 3D space providing for volume expropriation.
4.2. Archaeological Legislation
4.3. Public Utilities
4.4. Building Regulations
4.5. Further Research
Conflicts of Interest
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