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Econometrics, Volume 9, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 11 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study identifies the role of socio-economic and neighborhood factors in perpetuating health disparities between non-Hispanic whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Family income and local-area income inequality are found to be important, but their impact vary across groups. The “blackness” of a county is associated with better health for all minority groups, but it affects whites negatively. The most remarkable finding from our decomposition analysis is that education is by far the most powerful instrument in reducing health disparity across all groups. It leads individuals to take better care of themselves by choosing less hazardous occupations, better neighborhoods, and healthy behaviors. In lacking this ‘personal firewall,’ their less-educated peers rely more on social resources for health protection. View this paper
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Article
An Empirical Model of Medicare Costs: The Role of Health Insurance, Employment, and Delays in Medicare Enrollment
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 25; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020025 - 08 Jun 2021
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Medicare is one of the largest federal social insurance programs in the United States and the secondary payer for Medicare beneficiaries covered by employer-provided health insurance (EPHI). However, an increasing number of individuals are delaying their Medicare enrollment when they first become eligible [...] Read more.
Medicare is one of the largest federal social insurance programs in the United States and the secondary payer for Medicare beneficiaries covered by employer-provided health insurance (EPHI). However, an increasing number of individuals are delaying their Medicare enrollment when they first become eligible at age 65. Using administrative data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS), this paper estimates the effects of EPHI, employment, and delays in Medicare enrollment on Medicare costs. Given the administrative nature of the data, we are able to disentangle and estimate the Medicare as secondary payer (MSP) effect and the work effects on Medicare costs, as well as to construct delay enrollment indicators. Using Heckman’s sample selection model, we estimate that MSP and being employed are associated with a lower probability of observing positive Medicare spending and a lower level of Medicare spending. This paper quantifies annual savings of $5.37 billion from MSP and being employed. Delays in Medicare enrollment generate additional annual savings of $10.17 billion. Owing to the links between employment, health insurance coverage, and Medicare costs presented in this research, our findings may be of interest to policy makers who should take into account the consequences of reforms on the Medicare system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Econometrics)
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Article
Are Soybean Yields Getting a Free Ride from Climate Change? Evidence from Argentine Time Series Data
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020024 - 04 Jun 2021
Viewed by 976
Abstract
We analyze the influence of climate change on soybean yields in a multivariate time-series framework for a major soybean producer and exporter—Argentina. Long-run relationships are found in partial systems involving climatic, technological, and economic factors. Automatic model selection simplifies dynamic specification for a [...] Read more.
We analyze the influence of climate change on soybean yields in a multivariate time-series framework for a major soybean producer and exporter—Argentina. Long-run relationships are found in partial systems involving climatic, technological, and economic factors. Automatic model selection simplifies dynamic specification for a model of soybean yields and permits encompassing tests of different economic hypotheses. Soybean yields adjust to disequilibria that reflect technological improvements to seed and crops practices. Climatic effects include (a) a positive effect from increased CO2 concentrations, which may capture accelerated photosynthesis, and (b) a negative effect from high local temperatures, which could increase with continued global warming. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Celebrated Econometricians: David Hendry)
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Article
Semiparametric Estimation of a Corporate Bond Rating Model
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 23; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020023 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 906
Abstract
This paper investigates the incentive of credit rating agencies (CRAs) to bias ratings using a semiparametric, ordered-response model. The proposed model explicitly takes conflicts of interest into account and allows the ratings to depend flexibly on risk attributes through a semiparametric index structure. [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the incentive of credit rating agencies (CRAs) to bias ratings using a semiparametric, ordered-response model. The proposed model explicitly takes conflicts of interest into account and allows the ratings to depend flexibly on risk attributes through a semiparametric index structure. Asymptotic normality for the estimator is derived after using several bias correction techniques. Using Moody’s rating data from 2001 to 2016, I found that firms related to Moody’s shareholders were more likely to receive better ratings. Such favorable treatments were more pronounced in investment grade bonds compared with high yield bonds, with the 2007–2009 financial crisis being an exception. Parametric models, such as the ordered-probit, failed to identify this heterogeneity of the rating bias across different bond categories. Full article
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Article
Racial/Ethnic Health Disparity in the U.S.: A Decomposition Analysis
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020022 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 1041
Abstract
Following recent econometric developments, we use self-assessed general health on a Likert scale conditioned by several objective determinants to measure health disparity between non-Hispanic Whites and minority groups in the United States. A statistical decomposition analysis is conducted to determine the contributions of [...] Read more.
Following recent econometric developments, we use self-assessed general health on a Likert scale conditioned by several objective determinants to measure health disparity between non-Hispanic Whites and minority groups in the United States. A statistical decomposition analysis is conducted to determine the contributions of socio-demographic and neighborhood characteristics in generating disparities. Whereas, 72% of health disparity between Whites and Blacks is attributable to Blacks’ relatively worse socio-economic and demographic characteristics, it is only 50% for Hispanics and 65% for American Indian Alaska Natives. The role of a number of factors including per capita income and income inequality vary across the groups. Interestingly, “blackness” of a county is associated with better health for all minority groups, but it affects Whites negatively. Our findings suggest that public health initiatives to eliminate health disparity should be targeted differently for different racial/ethnic groups by focusing on the most vulnerable within each group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Econometrics)
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Article
Asymptotic and Finite Sample Properties for Multivariate Rotated GARCH Models
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 21; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020021 - 04 May 2021
Viewed by 831
Abstract
This paper derives the statistical properties of a two-step approach to estimating multivariate rotated GARCH-BEKK (RBEKK) models. From the definition of RBEKK, the unconditional covariance matrix is estimated in the first step to rotate the observed variables in order to have the identity [...] Read more.
This paper derives the statistical properties of a two-step approach to estimating multivariate rotated GARCH-BEKK (RBEKK) models. From the definition of RBEKK, the unconditional covariance matrix is estimated in the first step to rotate the observed variables in order to have the identity matrix for its sample covariance matrix. In the second step, the remaining parameters are estimated by maximizing the quasi-log-likelihood function. For this two-step quasi-maximum likelihood (2sQML) estimator, this paper shows consistency and asymptotic normality under weak conditions. While second-order moments are needed for the consistency of the estimated unconditional covariance matrix, the existence of the finite sixth-order moments is required for the convergence of the second-order derivatives of the quasi-log-likelihood function. This paper also shows the relationship between the asymptotic distributions of the 2sQML estimator for the RBEKK model and variance targeting quasi-maximum likelihood estimator for the VT-BEKK model. Monte Carlo experiments show that the bias of the 2sQML estimator is negligible and that the appropriateness of the diagonal specification depends on the closeness to either the diagonal BEKK or the diagonal RBEKK models. An empirical analysis of the returns of stocks listed on the Dow Jones Industrial Average indicates that the choice of the diagonal BEKK or diagonal RBEKK models changes over time, but most of the differences between the two forecasts are negligible. Full article
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Article
Structural Panel Bayesian VAR with Multivariate Time-Varying Volatility to Jointly Deal with Structural Changes, Policy Regime Shifts, and Endogeneity Issues
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020020 - 02 May 2021
Viewed by 833
Abstract
This paper improves a standard Structural Panel Bayesian Vector Autoregression model in order to jointly deal with issues of endogeneity, because of omitted factors and unobserved heterogeneity, and volatility, because of policy regime shifts and structural changes. Bayesian methods are used to select [...] Read more.
This paper improves a standard Structural Panel Bayesian Vector Autoregression model in order to jointly deal with issues of endogeneity, because of omitted factors and unobserved heterogeneity, and volatility, because of policy regime shifts and structural changes. Bayesian methods are used to select the best model solution for examining if international spillovers come from multivariate volatility, time variation, or contemporaneous relationship. An empirical application among Central-Eastern and Western Europe economies is conducted to describe the performance of the methodology, with particular emphasis on the Great Recession and post-crisis periods. A simulated example is also addressed to highlight the performance of the estimating procedure. Findings from evidence-based forecasting are also addressed to evaluate the impact of an ongoing pandemic crisis on the global economy. Full article
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Article
Outliers in Semi-Parametric Estimation of Treatment Effects
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 19; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020019 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 768
Abstract
Outliers can be particularly hard to detect, creating bias and inconsistency in the semi-parametric estimates. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that semi-parametric methods, such as matching, are biased in the presence of outliers. Bad and good leverage point [...] Read more.
Outliers can be particularly hard to detect, creating bias and inconsistency in the semi-parametric estimates. In this paper, we use Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that semi-parametric methods, such as matching, are biased in the presence of outliers. Bad and good leverage point outliers are considered. Bias arises in the case of bad leverage points because they completely change the distribution of the metrics used to define counterfactuals; good leverage points, on the other hand, increase the chance of breaking the common support condition and distort the balance of the covariates, which may push practitioners to misspecify the propensity score or the distance measures. We provide some clues to identify and correct for the effects of outliers following a reweighting strategy in the spirit of the Stahel-Donoho (SD) multivariate estimator of scale and location, and the S-estimator of multivariate location (Smultiv). An application of this strategy to experimental data is also implemented. Full article
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Article
Multidimensional Arrays, Indices and Kronecker Products
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 18; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020018 - 28 Apr 2021
Viewed by 619
Abstract
Much of the algebra that is associated with the Kronecker product of matrices has been rendered in the conventional notation of matrix algebra, which conceals the essential structures of the objects of the analysis. This makes it difficult to establish even the most [...] Read more.
Much of the algebra that is associated with the Kronecker product of matrices has been rendered in the conventional notation of matrix algebra, which conceals the essential structures of the objects of the analysis. This makes it difficult to establish even the most salient of the results. The problems can be greatly alleviated by adopting an orderly index notation that reveals these structures. This claim is demonstrated by considering a problem that several authors have already addressed without producing a widely accepted solution. Full article
Article
Uncertainty Due to Infectious Diseases and Stock–Bond Correlation
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020017 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
We study the non-linear causal relation between uncertainty-due-to-infectious-diseases and stock–bond correlation. To this end, we use high-frequency 1-min data to compute daily realized measures of correlation and jumps, and then, we employ a nonlinear Granger causality test with the use of artificial neural [...] Read more.
We study the non-linear causal relation between uncertainty-due-to-infectious-diseases and stock–bond correlation. To this end, we use high-frequency 1-min data to compute daily realized measures of correlation and jumps, and then, we employ a nonlinear Granger causality test with the use of artificial neural networks so as to investigate the predictability of this type of uncertainty on realized stock–bond correlation and jumps. Our findings reveal that uncertainty-due-to-infectious-diseases has significant predictive value on the changes of the stock–bond relation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Econometrics)
Article
Quantile Regression with Generated Regressors
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020016 - 12 Apr 2021
Viewed by 883
Abstract
This paper studies estimation and inference for linear quantile regression models with generated regressors. We suggest a practical two-step estimation procedure, where the generated regressors are computed in the first step. The asymptotic properties of the two-step estimator, namely, consistency and asymptotic normality [...] Read more.
This paper studies estimation and inference for linear quantile regression models with generated regressors. We suggest a practical two-step estimation procedure, where the generated regressors are computed in the first step. The asymptotic properties of the two-step estimator, namely, consistency and asymptotic normality are established. We show that the asymptotic variance-covariance matrix needs to be adjusted to account for the first-step estimation error. We propose a general estimator for the asymptotic variance-covariance, establish its consistency, and develop testing procedures for linear hypotheses in these models. Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the finite-sample performance of the estimation and inference procedures are provided. Finally, we apply the proposed methods to study Engel curves for various commodities using data from the UK Family Expenditure Survey. We document strong heterogeneity in the estimated Engel curves along the conditional distribution of the budget share of each commodity. The empirical application also emphasizes that correctly estimating confidence intervals for the estimated Engel curves by the proposed estimator is of importance for inference. Full article
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Article
Debiased/Double Machine Learning for Instrumental Variable Quantile Regressions
Econometrics 2021, 9(2), 15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/econometrics9020015 - 02 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1209
Abstract
In this study, we investigate the estimation and inference on a low-dimensional causal parameter in the presence of high-dimensional controls in an instrumental variable quantile regression. Our proposed econometric procedure builds on the Neyman-type orthogonal moment conditions of a previous study (Chernozhukov et [...] Read more.
In this study, we investigate the estimation and inference on a low-dimensional causal parameter in the presence of high-dimensional controls in an instrumental variable quantile regression. Our proposed econometric procedure builds on the Neyman-type orthogonal moment conditions of a previous study (Chernozhukov et al. 2018) and is thus relatively insensitive to the estimation of the nuisance parameters. The Monte Carlo experiments show that the estimator copes well with high-dimensional controls. We also apply the procedure to empirically reinvestigate the quantile treatment effect of 401(k) participation on accumulated wealth. Full article
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