2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Acute Model
3.2. Chronic, Repetitive Model
Conflicts of Interest
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|Reference||Acute Model||Most Relevant Findings, Human Milk|
|Zimmerman et al., 2009 ||48 women, nursing healthy infants (1–6 months) during a 24 h religious fasting period. Paired sampling human milk 2 days before, just after fasting, and 24–25 h later (10 mL milk before nursing).||just after vs. before: sodium (+16%); calcium (+17%); protein (+9%); phosphorus (−19%); lactose (−6%); fat unchanged.|
24 h later vs. before: protein (+9%); lactose (−3%).
|Neville et al., 1987 + 1993 [10,11]||23 women. Fasting after evening meal, non-caloric containing fluids allowed for 18–20 h. Repeated human milk sampling over the fasting period.||throughout fasting: milk glucose, protein, fat and lactose remained constant, despite maternal insulin and glucose decrease.|
|Reference||Chronic, Repetitive Model||Most Relevant Findings, Human Milk|
|Prentice et al., 1984 ||10 lactating women, 2 weeks before, 2nd–4th week during and 2 weeks after Ramadan; morning and evening samples. 10 non-lactating controls for maternal characteristics (morning vs. evening, lactating vs. non-lactating: higher weight loss (during the day); more dehydration; higher water turnover, likely due to higher water intake at night) in lactating women.||during Ramadan vs. before: osmolarity (+3%), sodium (+25%); lactose (−14%); potassium (−18%).|
during vs. after: osmolarity (+3%); sodium (+30%); lactose (−9%); potassium (−5%).
during morning vs. evening, osmolarity (−3%); lactose (−12%); sodium (+55%); potassium (unchanged).
|Salah et al., 2016 ||24 women, paired sampling during (100 mL) vs. 2 weeks after Ramadan. Morning sampling after nursing, so more a ‘chronic’ model.||during vs. after: lactose (−6%); protein (−6%); sodium (−28%); potassium (−18%); calcium (−7%); phosphorus (−14%) (fat unreported).|
|Bener et al., 2001 ||26 women, 2nd–4th week during vs. 2 weeks after Ramadan. Morning sampling after nursing, so more a ‘chronic’ model.||during vs. after: no differences in macronutrients (lactose, protein, fat, solids, triglycerides, cholesterol).|
|Rakicioglu et al., 2006 ||21 women, 2nd week during vs. 2 weeks after Ramadan. Morning sampling after nursing, so more a ‘chronic’ model.||during vs. after: no differences in macro-nutrients; potassium (−25%); dry mass (−22%). Magnesium (−12%); Zinc (−16%).|
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