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Dermatopathology, Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 10 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): First described in 2003, annular lichenoid dermatitis (ALDY) is a lichenoid dermatosis of unknown etiology that often occurs in children and young adults. The disease consists of solitary or multiple persistent asymptomatic erythematous macules and round, complete or incomplete, annular patches with a red-brownish border and central hypopigmentation, mostly distributed on the groin and flanks. Histology shows a peculiar lichenoid dermatitis with massive necrosis/apoptosis of the keratynocytes limited to the tips of rete ridges. The infiltrate is composed mostly of polyclonal T (CD3+, CD4+/−, CD8+/−) lymphocytes. Clinical differential diagnosis include morphea, annular erythema, and mycosis fungoides. The disease runs a chronic course with scarce tendency to involve previously unaffected areas. ALDY lesions are usually responsive to topical corticosteroids and topical tacrolimus. View this paper.
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Article
Bullous Pemphigoid in Patients Receiving Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors and Psoriatic Patients—Focus on Clinical and Histopathological Variation
Dermatopathology 2022, 9(1), 60-81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology9010010 - 18 Mar 2022
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Abstract
Background: The most common autoimmune blistering disease, bullous pemphigoid (BP), shows an increased prevalence in psoriatic patients and oncologic patients undergoing immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB). Even though the same autoantigens (BP180/BP230) are detectable, it remains obscure whether clinical or histopathological differences exist between these [...] Read more.
Background: The most common autoimmune blistering disease, bullous pemphigoid (BP), shows an increased prevalence in psoriatic patients and oncologic patients undergoing immune-checkpoint blockade (ICB). Even though the same autoantigens (BP180/BP230) are detectable, it remains obscure whether clinical or histopathological differences exist between these different groups of BP patients. In this study, we strived to analyze this matter based on own data and previously published reports. Methods: We performed an institutional chart review from 2010–2020 to identify BP patients with psoriasis (n = 6) or underlying ICB (n = 4) and matched them with idiopathic cases of BP (n = 33). We compared clinical characteristics, subtypes, and dermatopathological determinants (e.g., tissue eosinophilia/neutrophilia, papillary edema, lymphocytic infiltration) among the groups. Results: ICB-associated BP affects men more often and might show mucosal involvement more frequently. We found no statistically significant dermatopathological differences among the groups. Conclusions: Clinicians should be aware of an increased risk of BP in patients with psoriasis and oncologic patients receiving ICB; atypical pruritic skin lesions should prompt a workup including a skin biopsy for histopathology and direct immunofluorescence in these patients. Larger studies might be necessary to detect slight dermatopathological variation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinico-Pathological Correlation in Dermatopathology)
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Case Report
Polarization of Macrophages in Granulomatous Cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma Granulomatous Mycosis Fungoides Microenvironment
Dermatopathology 2022, 9(1), 54-59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology9010009 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1047
Abstract
Polarization of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) has been shown to have prognostic significance in different cancer types. This study evaluates the macrophage subtypes that predominates in GMF. Cases of GCTCL from 2007–2020 were identified (n = 6), clinical data was extracted from [...] Read more.
Polarization of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) has been shown to have prognostic significance in different cancer types. This study evaluates the macrophage subtypes that predominates in GMF. Cases of GCTCL from 2007–2020 were identified (n = 6), clinical data was extracted from the electronic medical record, and all pathology slides were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies were performed to characterize M1 and M2 macrophage polarization. CD68 (PGM1), pSTAT1, and CD163 were used as pan macrophage, M1, and M2 markers, respectively. The macrophages with positive staining at hot spot per high power field were counted and recorded for data analysis. The average age of patients was 60.5 years [range, 21–78], five patients (83%) were women and 1 (17%) was a man. Five patients were Caucasian (83%), and 1 was Black/African American (17%). Two patients had late stage GMF with M2 (CD163) predominance and the other three had early stage GMF with M1 (pSTAT1) predominance. Our study suggests that macrophage polarization present in GMF tends to be M1 in early stages and M2 in advanced stages. Additional studies are needed to further elucidate the microenvironment of macrophages present in GMF. Such findings may lead to prognostic and therapeutic advances in GMF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Dermatopathology)
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Article
Absence of TFE3 Immunoexpression in a Spectrum of Cutaneous Mixed Tumors: A Retrospective Pilot Study
Dermatopathology 2022, 9(1), 48-53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology9010008 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Background: Cutaneous mixed tumors (CMTs) include benign, atypical, and malignant chondroid syringomas. This spectrum of entities is known to be a part of myoepithelial neoplasms, which display considerable genetic heterogeneity. In a previous report, a malignant chondroid syringoma (MCS) demonstrated PHF1-TFE3 gene fusion [...] Read more.
Background: Cutaneous mixed tumors (CMTs) include benign, atypical, and malignant chondroid syringomas. This spectrum of entities is known to be a part of myoepithelial neoplasms, which display considerable genetic heterogeneity. In a previous report, a malignant chondroid syringoma (MCS) demonstrated PHF1-TFE3 gene fusion and strong TFE3 immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The authors suggested that the MCS is genetically related to tumors with TFE3 rearrangements such as renal cell carcinoma and might have genetic heterogeneity. In this study, we aim to investigate potential TFE3 gene fusions with TFE3 IHC stain in a spectrum of CMTs. Materials: Eleven benign chondroid syringoma (BCS), one atypical chondroid syringoma (ACS), and one malignant chondroid syringoma cases were identified, stained with TFE3 IHC stain, and interpreted based on preset criteria. Results: ACS and MCS cases did not show any staining. In 7 of 11 BCS cases, weak (1+) staining was observed in less than 20% of the tumor cells and were considered negative. Additionally, in one BCS case, weak (1+) and (2+) staining was shown in approximately 15% and less than 1% of the tumor cells, respectively. Based on our positivity criteria, this case was also interpreted as negative. Conclusions: Our study failed to reveal possible TFE3 gene fusion by IHC staining in benign, atypical, and malignant chondroid syringomas. Although the negative staining in MCS suggests a genetic heterogeneity in this entity, further studies with larger case groups are needed for a more definitive conclusion. Full article
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Review
Dermal Duct Tumor: A Diagnostic Dilemma
Dermatopathology 2022, 9(1), 36-47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology9010007 - 28 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1177
Abstract
Poromas or poroid tumors are a group of rare, benign cutaneous neoplasms derived from the terminal eccrine or apocrine sweat gland duct. There are four poroma variants with overlapping features: dermal duct tumor (DDT), eccrine poroma, hidroacanthoma simplex, and poroid hidradenoma, of which [...] Read more.
Poromas or poroid tumors are a group of rare, benign cutaneous neoplasms derived from the terminal eccrine or apocrine sweat gland duct. There are four poroma variants with overlapping features: dermal duct tumor (DDT), eccrine poroma, hidroacanthoma simplex, and poroid hidradenoma, of which DDT is the least common. Clinically, the variants have a nonspecific appearance and present as solitary dome-shaped papules, plaques, or nodules. They can be indistinguishable from each other and a multitude of differential diagnoses, necessitating a better understanding of the characteristics that make the diagnosis of poroid neoplasms. However, there remains a paucity of information on these lesions, especially DDTs, given their infrequent occurrence. Herein, we review the literature on DDTs with an emphasis on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Dermatopathology in 2021
Dermatopathology 2022, 9(1), 35; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology9010006 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1087
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Case Report
Fibroblastic Connective Tissue Nevus Mimicking Lipoma on Ultrasound: Case Report and Brief Review
Dermatopathology 2022, 9(1), 32-34; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology9010005 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1076
Abstract
Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus (FCTN) is a rare, benign, and recently described dermal mesenchymal lesion characterized by CD34-positive spindle cells. We present a case of FCTN on the upper back of a 9-month-old boy who was diagnosed with a benign lipoma by ultrasound. [...] Read more.
Fibroblastic connective tissue nevus (FCTN) is a rare, benign, and recently described dermal mesenchymal lesion characterized by CD34-positive spindle cells. We present a case of FCTN on the upper back of a 9-month-old boy who was diagnosed with a benign lipoma by ultrasound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pediatric Dermatopathology)
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Communication
Annular Lichenoid Dermatitis (of Youth)
Dermatopathology 2022, 9(1), 23-31; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology9010004 - 16 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1161
Abstract
About 20 years after its first description, Annular Lichenoid Dermatitis of Youth (ALDY) is recognized as a distinctive lichenoid dermatosis with specific clinical and histological features. The disease occurs mostly in young persons all over the world, runs a chronic course, and has [...] Read more.
About 20 years after its first description, Annular Lichenoid Dermatitis of Youth (ALDY) is recognized as a distinctive lichenoid dermatosis with specific clinical and histological features. The disease occurs mostly in young persons all over the world, runs a chronic course, and has an obscure etiopathogenesis. Clinically, lesions consist of persistent, asymptomatic erythematous macules and round-oval annular patches with a red-violaceous non-scaling border and central hypopigmentation, mostly localized on the groin and flanks. Histology shows a peculiar lichenoid dermatitis characterized by irregular epidermal hyperplasia with an alternation of thinned and quadrangular rete ridges and a dense band-like lichenoid infiltrate of lymphocytes in the papillary dermis. Typically, there is infiltration of lymphocytes into the lower epidermal layers with massive necrosis/apoptosis of keratinocytes, which is limited to the tips of rete ridges. Dermal lymphocytes are usually CD3+, CD4+, while most of the intraepidermal T cells are CD8+. Analysis of TCR-γ-chain gene rearrangement displayed polyclonality in all cases examined. Differential diagnosis mainly includes morphea, mycosis fungoides, annular erythemas and inflammatory lesions of vitiligo. Topical corticosteroids and topical tacrolimus represent the most effective drugs for ALDY treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Memory of Raffaele Gianotti)
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Case Report
Morphea Profunda with Tertiary Lymphoid Follicles: Description of Two Cases and Review of the Literature
Dermatopathology 2022, 9(1), 17-22; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology9010003 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Morphea profunda or subcutaneous (deep) morphea is a variant of localized morphea, characterized by one or more ill-defined, deep sclerotic plaque. Preferential sites are the abdomen, trunk, sacral area, or extremities. The presence of hyperplastic lymphoid follicles in the context of the sclerotic [...] Read more.
Morphea profunda or subcutaneous (deep) morphea is a variant of localized morphea, characterized by one or more ill-defined, deep sclerotic plaque. Preferential sites are the abdomen, trunk, sacral area, or extremities. The presence of hyperplastic lymphoid follicles in the context of the sclerotic bands of morphea is rarely described. Localized scleroderma is sustained by a profibrotic inflammatory profile. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), an imbalance between functional subclasses of T-lymphocytes (innate immune cells) has a role in activate collagen deposition. In this case report, we present two cases of morphea profunda with lymphoid follicular hyperplasia. A systematic review of the literature on the pathophysiology of localized scleroderma is also presented, with particular reference to the presence of lymphoid structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Memory of Raffaele Gianotti)
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Article
Lack of PRAME Expression in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas
Dermatopathology 2022, 9(1), 11-16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology9010002 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are rare tumors with no established markers that can reliably distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Preferentially Expressed Antigen in Melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer/testis antigen that is found in many solid and hematologic malignancies. PRAME overexpression typically portends [...] Read more.
Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCLs) are rare tumors with no established markers that can reliably distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Preferentially Expressed Antigen in Melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer/testis antigen that is found in many solid and hematologic malignancies. PRAME overexpression typically portends a poor prognosis and lower chemotherapeutic response. To date, no studies have established a role for PRAME in CTCL. An analysis was performed on 47 cases definitively diagnosed as CTCL: 25 cases of mycosis fungoides, 2 of Sezary syndrome, 5 of CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder, 7 of primary cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma, 3 of primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, 1 of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, and 4 of angiocentric T-cell lymphoma. PRAME immunohistochemistry was completely negative in all cases. PRAME expression was not found in any CTCL subtypes, suggesting that the pathogenesis of CTCL is not mediated by PRAME. Further study is required to identify biomarkers that might aid in the diagnosis and prognostication of CTCLs. Full article
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Brief Report
Stimulation of Synthesis and Lysis of Extracellular Matrix Proteins in Fibrosis Associated with Lymphedema
Dermatopathology 2022, 9(1), 1-10; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/dermatopathology9010001 - 28 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Background: Fibrotic diseases pose a problem for overall health due to their chronic, progressive nature; the lack of a cure; and the fact that such conditions are largely refractory to current medical and surgical treatment practices. Objective: The aim of the [...] Read more.
Background: Fibrotic diseases pose a problem for overall health due to their chronic, progressive nature; the lack of a cure; and the fact that such conditions are largely refractory to current medical and surgical treatment practices. Objective: The aim of the present study was to report the physiological stimulation of synthesis and lysis of extracellular matrix proteins during the treatment of primary lymphedema. Material and Methods: A clinical trial was conducted involving the analysis of changes in type I and III collagen fibers and elastic fibers as well as the thickness of the epidermis and dermis in 10 histological fields. Samples were taken from the skin before and after intensive treatment using the Godoy Method® and adapted to the treatment of fibrosis in a patient with a clinical diagnosis of lower limb lymphedema. Slides were stained with orcein, hematoxylin and eosin, picrosirius red, and Gomori’s reticulin stains. Weibel’s multipoint method was used for the morphometric evaluation. The data were compared using the t-test with a 95% confidence interval. Results: Significant changes were detected in all aspects of interest (thickness of the epidermis and dermis, type I and III collagen fibers, and elastic fibers). Conclusion: The present findings demonstrate the physiological stimulation of synthesis and lysis of the main components of an extracellular matrix, such as type I and III collagen fibers and elastic fibers, as well as a reduction in the thickness of the epidermis and dermis in cases of fibrosis through adequate stimulation of the lymphatic system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinico-Pathological Correlation in Dermatopathology)
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