Cocculus hirsutus (L.) W.Theob. (Menispermaceae): A Review on Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities
TIFAC CORE in Herbal Drugs, Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytopharmacy, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research, Rockland’s, Ooty 643001, Tamil Nadu, India
Department of Chemistry, Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar College, Belonia 799155, Tripura, India
Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan
Program for Leading Graduate Schools, Health life Sciences: Interdisciplinary and Glocal Oriented (HIGO) Program, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicines 2020, 7(11), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines7110069
Received: 9 October 2020 / Revised: 3 November 2020 / Accepted: 6 November 2020 / Published: 10 November 2020
Background:Cocculus hirsutus (L.) W.Theob. (Menispermaceae) is a perennial climber distributed mostly in tropical and subtropical areas. The main aim of this article is to collect and analyze the scientific information related to traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents and pharmacological activities. Methods: Scientific information on C. hirsutus was retrieved from the online bibliographic databases (e.g. MEDLINE/PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Scopus). Information regarding traditional uses was also acquired from secondary resources including books and proceedings. Results: Different plant parts of C. hirsutus were reported to be used for the treatment of fever, skin diseases, stomach disorders and urinary diseases. Alkaloids such as jasminitine, hirsutine, cohirsitine and their derivatives along with a few flavonoids, triterpene derivatives and volatile compounds were reported from whole plant or different plant parts. Extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory and hepatoprotective activities among others. Conclusion: Although widely used in traditional medicines, only a few studies have been performed related to chemical constituents. Most of the biological activity evaluations were carried out using in vitro evaluation methods and only a few studies were carried out in animal models. In the future, properly designed in vivo and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the pharmacological activities of C. hirsutus along with bioassay-guided studies to isolate and identify the active constituents.