Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
PARP Inhibitors in Biliary Tract Cancer: A New Kid on the Block?
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Lonicera japonica Flower Bud Extract on Citrobacter rodentium-Induced Digestive Tract Infection
Previous Article in Special Issue
Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography for Screening and Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case Series and Review of the Literature
Article

Comorbidities Associated with Granuloma Annulare: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study

1
The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
2
Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
3
Division of Dermatology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43215, USA
4
Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Indicates Co-Senior Author.
Received: 5 August 2020 / Revised: 24 August 2020 / Accepted: 27 August 2020 / Published: 28 August 2020
Background: Granuloma annulare (GA) is a cutaneous granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology. There are conflicting data on the association between GA and multiple systemic conditions. As a result, we aimed to clarify the reported associations between GA and systemic conditions. Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional, case-control study was performed in which the medical records of biopsy-confirmed GA patients ≥18 years of age, who presented to the Johns Hopkins Hospital System between 1 January 2009 and 1 June 2019, were reviewed. GA patients were compared to controls matched for age, race, and sex. Results: After adjusting for confounders, GA patients (n = 82) had higher odds of concurrent type II diabetes (odds ratio (OR) = 5.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.73–16.07; p < 0.01), non-migraine headache (OR = 8.70; 95% CI, 1.61–46.88; p = 0.01), and a positive smoking history (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.10–3.38; p = 0.02) compared to controls (n = 164). Among GA patients, women were more likely to have ophthalmic conditions (p = 0.04), and men were more likely to have cardiovascular disease (p < 0.01) and type II diabetes (p = 0.05). No differences in systemic condition associations were observed among GA subtypes. Conclusions: Our results support the reported association between GA and type II diabetes. Furthermore, our findings indicate that GA may be associated with cigarette smoking and non-migraine headache disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: granuloma annulare; granulomatous disorders of the skin; inflammatory skin conditions; medical dermatology granuloma annulare; granulomatous disorders of the skin; inflammatory skin conditions; medical dermatology
MDPI and ACS Style

Almazan, E.; Roh, Y.S.; Belzberg, M.; Qin, C.X.; Williams, K.; Choi, J.; Sutaria, N.; Kaffenberger, B.; Semenov, Y.R.; Alhariri, J.; Kwatra, S.G. Comorbidities Associated with Granuloma Annulare: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study. Medicines 2020, 7, 53. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines7090053

AMA Style

Almazan E, Roh YS, Belzberg M, Qin CX, Williams K, Choi J, Sutaria N, Kaffenberger B, Semenov YR, Alhariri J, Kwatra SG. Comorbidities Associated with Granuloma Annulare: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study. Medicines. 2020; 7(9):53. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines7090053

Chicago/Turabian Style

Almazan, Erik, Youkyung S. Roh, Micah Belzberg, Caroline X. Qin, Kyle Williams, Justin Choi, Nishadh Sutaria, Benjamin Kaffenberger, Yevgeniy R. Semenov, Jihad Alhariri, and Shawn G. Kwatra 2020. "Comorbidities Associated with Granuloma Annulare: A Cross-Sectional, Case-Control Study" Medicines 7, no. 9: 53. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/medicines7090053

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop