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Designing New Yeasts for Craft Brewing: When Natural Biodiversity Meets Biotechnology

Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Amendola 2, 42122 Reggio Emilia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 21 November 2019 / Revised: 17 December 2019 / Accepted: 31 December 2019 / Published: 9 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wide World of Beverage Research: Reviews of Current Topics)
Beer is a fermented beverage with a history as old as human civilization. Ales and lagers are by far the most common beers; however, diversification is becoming increasingly important in the brewing market and the brewers are continuously interested in improving and extending the range of products, especially in the craft brewery sector. Fermentation is one of the widest spaces for innovation in the brewing process. Besides Saccharomyces cerevisiae ale and Saccharomyces pastorianus lager strains conventionally used in macro-breweries, there is an increasing demand for novel yeast starter cultures tailored for producing beer styles with diversified aroma profiles. Recently, four genetic engineering-free approaches expanded the genetic background and the phenotypic biodiversity of brewing yeasts and allowed novel costumed-designed starter cultures to be developed: (1) the research for new performant S. cerevisiae yeasts from fermented foods alternative to beer; (2) the creation of synthetic hybrids between S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces non-cerevisiae in order to mimic lager yeasts; (3) the exploitation of evolutionary engineering approaches; (4) the usage of non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Here, we summarized the pro and contra of these approaches and provided an overview on the most recent advances on how brewing yeast genome evolved and domestication took place. The resulting correlation maps between genotypes and relevant brewing phenotypes can assist and further improve the search for novel craft beer starter yeasts, enhancing the portfolio of diversified products offered to the final customer. View Full-Text
Keywords: craft brewing; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces eubayanus; hybrids; 4-vinyl guaiacol; non-conventional yeasts; evolutionary engineering; artisanal fermented food; natural biodiversity craft brewing; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces eubayanus; hybrids; 4-vinyl guaiacol; non-conventional yeasts; evolutionary engineering; artisanal fermented food; natural biodiversity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iattici, F.; Catallo, M.; Solieri, L. Designing New Yeasts for Craft Brewing: When Natural Biodiversity Meets Biotechnology. Beverages 2020, 6, 3. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6010003

AMA Style

Iattici F, Catallo M, Solieri L. Designing New Yeasts for Craft Brewing: When Natural Biodiversity Meets Biotechnology. Beverages. 2020; 6(1):3. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iattici, Fabrizio, Martina Catallo, and Lisa Solieri. 2020. "Designing New Yeasts for Craft Brewing: When Natural Biodiversity Meets Biotechnology" Beverages 6, no. 1: 3. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/beverages6010003

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