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Review

Extraction of Valuable Elements from Red Mud with a Focus on Using Liquid Media—A Review

1
A.A. Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Science, 49 Leninsky Prosp., 119334 Moscow, Russia
2
Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 91 Pervomaiskaya St., 620990 Ekaterinburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ana Paula Paiva
Received: 30 March 2021 / Revised: 7 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 10 June 2021
Bauxite residue, known as red mud, is a by-product of alumina production using the Bayer process. Currently, its total global storage amounts to over 4.6 billion tons, including about 600 million tons in Russia. The total global storage of red mud occupies large areas, leading to environmental damage and increasing environmental risks. Moreover, it contains a significant amount of sodium, which is easily soluble in subsoil water; therefore, a sustainable approach for comprehensive recycling of red mud is necessary. The bauxite residue contains valuable elements, such as aluminum, titanium, and scandium, which can be recovered using liquid media. In recent years, many methods of recovery of these elements from this waste have been proposed. This paper provides a critical review of hydrometallurgical, solvometallurgical, and complex methods for the recovery of valuable components from red mud, namely, aluminum, titanium, sodium, and rare and rare-earth elements. These methods include leaching using alkaline or acid solutions, ionic liquids, and biological organisms, in addition to red mud leaching solutions by extraction and sorption methods. Advantages and disadvantages of these processes in terms of their environmental impact are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: red mud; bauxite residue; hydrometallurgy; scandium; alumina; titanium; recycling; waste treatment; recovery red mud; bauxite residue; hydrometallurgy; scandium; alumina; titanium; recycling; waste treatment; recovery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zinoveev, D.; Pasechnik, L.; Fedotov, M.; Dyubanov, V.; Grudinsky, P.; Alpatov, A. Extraction of Valuable Elements from Red Mud with a Focus on Using Liquid Media—A Review. Recycling 2021, 6, 38. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6020038

AMA Style

Zinoveev D, Pasechnik L, Fedotov M, Dyubanov V, Grudinsky P, Alpatov A. Extraction of Valuable Elements from Red Mud with a Focus on Using Liquid Media—A Review. Recycling. 2021; 6(2):38. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6020038

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zinoveev, Dmitry, Liliya Pasechnik, Mikhail Fedotov, Valery Dyubanov, Pavel Grudinsky, and Andrey Alpatov. 2021. "Extraction of Valuable Elements from Red Mud with a Focus on Using Liquid Media—A Review" Recycling 6, no. 2: 38. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/recycling6020038

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