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Article

Effects of 7-Day Ketone Ingestion and a Physiological Workload on Postural Stability, Cognitive, and Muscular Exertion Measures in Professional Firefighters

1
Neuromechanics Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
2
Metabolic and Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Health and Human Performance, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
3
Nutrition, Exercise and Stress Lab, Department of Kinesiology, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
4
Applied Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA
5
Department of Health and Human Performance, University of Wisconsin-Platteville, Platteville, WI 53818, USA
6
Department of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, University of North Alabama, Florence, AL 35632, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2018 / Revised: 28 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 March 2019 / Published: 8 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Safety 2019)
Background: Postural stability and cognitive performance are challenged in firefighters. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the impact of 7-day ketone supplementation on postural stability, cognitive performance, and muscular activation before and after a physiological workload. Methods: Nine professional firefighters completed two experimental sessions (pre- and post-workload) in a counterbalanced, double-blind design. Participants ingested either a ketone salt (KS) or placebo (PLA) daily for seven days, and had an eighth ingestion 30 min prior to testing. Each experimental testing consisted of maximal voluntary contractions (MVIC) for four muscles (knee flexors—BF, extensor—VM, ankle dorsiflexors—TA, and plantar flexors—MG) using electromyography and postural stability testing (eyes open (EO), eyes closed (EC), and eyes open-dual-task using a FitLight™ system (EOT)), before (pre-workload) and after (post-workload) a simulated physiological workload. The workload consisted of 35 min steady state exercise at 60% of peak oxygen consumption wearing firefighter personal protective equipment (PPE). Results: Significant differences were limited to time effects (pre-workload vs. post-workload), with no differences between groups (KS vs. PLA). Significantly lower muscle activity in VM, TA, and MG during MVIC, greater postural sway and muscle activity in BF during EC and EOT, and slower response time during EOT were evident post-workload. Conclusions: A 7-day ketone supplementation does not impact postural stability, muscle activity, and cognitive tasks, but a fatiguing workload causes significant performance reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: firefighters; ketones; muscular exertion; postural stability; body balance; response times firefighters; ketones; muscular exertion; postural stability; body balance; response times
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chander, H.; McAllister, M.J.; Holland, A.M.; Waldman, H.S.; Krings, B.M.; Swain, J.C.; Turner, A.J.; Basham, S.A.; Smith, J.W.; Knight, A.C. Effects of 7-Day Ketone Ingestion and a Physiological Workload on Postural Stability, Cognitive, and Muscular Exertion Measures in Professional Firefighters. Safety 2019, 5, 15. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety5010015

AMA Style

Chander H, McAllister MJ, Holland AM, Waldman HS, Krings BM, Swain JC, Turner AJ, Basham SA, Smith JW, Knight AC. Effects of 7-Day Ketone Ingestion and a Physiological Workload on Postural Stability, Cognitive, and Muscular Exertion Measures in Professional Firefighters. Safety. 2019; 5(1):15. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety5010015

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chander, Harish, Matthew J. McAllister, Angelia M. Holland, Hunter S. Waldman, Benjamin M. Krings, Jonathan C. Swain, Alana J. Turner, Steven A. Basham, JohnEric W. Smith, and Adam C. Knight 2019. "Effects of 7-Day Ketone Ingestion and a Physiological Workload on Postural Stability, Cognitive, and Muscular Exertion Measures in Professional Firefighters" Safety 5, no. 1: 15. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/safety5010015

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