Next Issue
Volume 7, March
Previous Issue
Volume 6, September

Int. J. Neonatal Screen., Volume 6, Issue 4 (December 2020) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Dr. Lorey was a strong advocate for newborn screening and in his honor, we recognize that his seminal contributions undoubtedly have improved the quality of life of countless newborns and their families nationally and internationally. He worked with many family organizations, such as Save Babies Through Screening Foundation, to create and translate the tools needed to realize the promise of early diagnosis and treatment to save newborn lives (The photo courtesy of Dr. Lorey's family). View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
At-Risk Testing for Pompe Disease Using Dried Blood Spots: Lessons Learned for Newborn Screening
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 96; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040096 - 21 Dec 2020
Viewed by 441
Abstract
Pompe disease (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid-α-glucosidase (GAA, EC 3.2.1.20), leading to generalized accumulation of lysosomal glycogen especially in the heart, skeletal, and smooth muscle, and the nervous system. It is generally classified [...] Read more.
Pompe disease (GSD II) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid-α-glucosidase (GAA, EC 3.2.1.20), leading to generalized accumulation of lysosomal glycogen especially in the heart, skeletal, and smooth muscle, and the nervous system. It is generally classified based on the age of onset as infantile (IOPD) presenting during the first year of life, and late onset (LOPD) when it presents afterwards. In our study, a cohort of 13,627 samples were tested between January 2017 and December 2018 for acid-α-glucosidase (GAA, EC 3.2.1.20) deficiency either by fluorometry or tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Testing was performed for patients who displayed conditions of unknown etiology, e.g., CK elevations or cardiomyopathy, in the case of infantile patients. On average 8% of samples showed activity below the reference range and were further assessed by another enzyme activity measurement or molecular genetic analysis. Pre-analytical conditions, like proper drying, greatly affect enzyme activity, and should be assessed with measurement of reference enzyme(s). In conclusion, at-risk testing can provide a good first step for the future introduction of newborn screening for Pompe disease. It yields immediate benefits for the patients regarding the availability and timeliness of the diagnosis. In addition, the laboratory can introduce the required methodology and gain insights in the evaluation of results in a lower throughput environment. Finally, awareness of such a rare condition is increased tremendously among local physicians which can aid in the introduction newborn screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening for Pompe Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Philippine Performance Evaluation and Assessment Scheme (PPEAS): Experiences in Newborn Screening System Quality Improvement
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 95; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040095 - 11 Dec 2020
Viewed by 672
Abstract
Newborn Bloodspot Screening (NBS) has existed for over 60 years, having been initiated by Guthrie in the U.S. In the Philippines, NBS was introduced in 1996 and later was supported by legislation. The NBS program now includes 29 conditions, covering 91.6% of the [...] Read more.
Newborn Bloodspot Screening (NBS) has existed for over 60 years, having been initiated by Guthrie in the U.S. In the Philippines, NBS was introduced in 1996 and later was supported by legislation. The NBS program now includes 29 conditions, covering 91.6% of the newborn population in 2019. Program growth and expansion necessitated development of a formal performance evaluation and assessment scheme (PEAS) for monitoring performance and for continuously improving quality. This study’s objective was to present the development, implementation, and results to date of the Philippine Performance PEAS (PPEAS). Using the comprehensive listing of laboratory and non-laboratory elements in the model PEAS system in the U.S., PPEAS tools were developed for critical Philippine NBS system components: regional Department of Health (national health agency, Philippines) (DOH) offices (CHDs), NBS laboratories (NSCs), NBS specimen submitters (NSFs), and long-term case management centers (NBSCCs). Data generated from the various PPEAS have been periodically reviewed and analyzed for NBS system impact. PPEAS were developed to facilitate quality improvement at various levels of the Philippine NBS system. PPEAS identified successes, gaps, and challenges to be addressed by NSCs, NSFs, CHDs, and NBSCCs with the assistance of the Newborn Screening Reference Center and the Department of Health. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Methodological Quality and Challenges in Conducting Economic Evaluations of Newborn Screening: A Scoping Review
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 94; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040094 - 23 Nov 2020
Viewed by 595
Abstract
Cost-effectiveness (CEA) and cost–utility analyses (CUA) have become popular types of economic evaluations (EE) used for evidence-based decision-making in healthcare resource allocation. Newborn screening programs (NBS) can have significant clinical benefits for society, and cost-effectiveness analysis may help to select the optimal strategy [...] Read more.
Cost-effectiveness (CEA) and cost–utility analyses (CUA) have become popular types of economic evaluations (EE) used for evidence-based decision-making in healthcare resource allocation. Newborn screening programs (NBS) can have significant clinical benefits for society, and cost-effectiveness analysis may help to select the optimal strategy among different screening programs, including the no-screening option, on different conditions. These economic analyses of NBS, however, are hindered by several methodological challenges. This study explored the methodological quality in recent NBS economic evaluations and analyzed the main challenges and strategies adopted by researchers to deal with them. A scoping review was conducted according to PRISMA methodology to identify CEAs and CUAs of NBS. The methodological quality of the retrieved studies was assessed quantitatively using a specific guideline for the quality assessment of NBS economic evaluations, by calculating a general score for each EE. Challenges in the studies were then explored using thematic analysis as a qualitative synthesis approach. Thirty-five studies met the inclusion criteria. The quantitative analysis showed that the methodological quality of NBS economic evaluations was heterogeneous. Lack of clear description of items related to results, discussion, and discounting were the most frequent flaws. Methodological challenges in performing EEs of neonatal screenings include the adoption of a long time horizon, the use of quality-adjusted life years as health outcome measure, and the assessment of costs beyond the screening interventions. The results of this review can support future economic evaluation research, aiding researchers to develop a methodological guidance to perform EEs aimed at producing solid results to inform decisions for resource allocation in neonatal screening. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Cost-Effectiveness of Expanding the UK Newborn Bloodspot Screening Programme to Include Five Additional Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040093 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 612
Abstract
Glutaric aciduria type 1, homocystinuria, isovaleric acidaemia, long-chain hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and maple syrup urine disease are all inborn errors of metabolism that can be detected through newborn bloodspot screening. This evaluation was undertaken in 2013 to provide evidence to the UK [...] Read more.
Glutaric aciduria type 1, homocystinuria, isovaleric acidaemia, long-chain hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and maple syrup urine disease are all inborn errors of metabolism that can be detected through newborn bloodspot screening. This evaluation was undertaken in 2013 to provide evidence to the UK National Screening Committee for the cost-effectiveness of including these five conditions in the UK Newborn Bloodspot Screening Programme. A decision-tree model with lifetable estimates of outcomes was built with the model structure and parameterisation informed by a systematic review and expert clinical judgment. A National Health Service/Personal Social Services perspective was used, and lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were discounted at 1.5%. Uncertainty in the results was explored using expected value of perfect information analysis methods together with a sensitivity analysis using the screened incidence rate in the UK from 2014 to 2018. The model estimates that screening for all the conditions is more effective and cost saving when compared to not screening for each of the conditions, and the results were robust to the updated incidence rates. The key uncertainties included the sensitivity and specificity of the screening test and the estimated costs and QALYs. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of a Common Internal Standard Material to Reduce Inter-Laboratory Variation and Ensure the Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Expanded Newborn Screening Results When Using Flow Injection Analysis Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Internal Calibration
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 92; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040092 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 647
Abstract
In 2015, the newborn screening (NBS) programmes in England and Wales were expanded to include four additional disorders: Classical Homocystinuria, Isovaleric Acidemia, Glutaric Aciduria Type 1 and Maple Syrup Urine Disease, bringing the total number of analytes quantified to eight: phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, [...] Read more.
In 2015, the newborn screening (NBS) programmes in England and Wales were expanded to include four additional disorders: Classical Homocystinuria, Isovaleric Acidemia, Glutaric Aciduria Type 1 and Maple Syrup Urine Disease, bringing the total number of analytes quantified to eight: phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, isovalerylcarnitine, glutarylcarnitine, octanoylcarnitine and decanoylcarnitine. Post-implementation, population data monitoring showed that inter-laboratory variation was greater than expected, with 90th centiles varying from 17% to 59%. We evaluated the effect of stable isotope internal standard (IS) used for quantitation on inter-laboratory variation. Four laboratories analysed routine screening samples (n > 101,820) using a common IS. Inter-laboratory variation was determined for the eight analytes and compared with results obtained using an in-house common IS (n > 102,194). A linear mixed-effects model was fitted to the data. Using a common IS mix reduced the inter-laboratory variation significantly (p < 0.05) for five analytes. For three analytes, the lack of significance was explained by use of individual laboratory “calibration factors”. For screening programmes where laboratories adhere to single analyte cut-off values (COVs), it is important that inter-laboratory variation is minimised, primarily to prevent false positive results. Whilst the use of a common IS helps achieve this, it is evident that instrument set-up also contributes to inter-laboratory variation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCommentary
Newborn Screening for Mucopolysaccharidosis I: Moving Forward Learning from Experience
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 91; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040091 - 19 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 546
Abstract
There have been significant advances allowing for the integration of mucopolysaccharidosis I into newborn screening programs. Initial experiences using a single-tier approach for this disorder have highlighted shortcomings that require immediate remediation. The recent evaluation of a second-tier biomarker integrated into the MPS [...] Read more.
There have been significant advances allowing for the integration of mucopolysaccharidosis I into newborn screening programs. Initial experiences using a single-tier approach for this disorder have highlighted shortcomings that require immediate remediation. The recent evaluation of a second-tier biomarker integrated into the MPS I newborn screening protocol has been demonstrated to greatly improve the precision and predictive value of newborn screening for this disorder. This commentary urges newborn screening programs to learn from these experiences and improve newborn screening for mucopolysaccharidosis I and future mucopolysaccharidoses newborn screening programs by implementation of a second-tier biomarker analyte. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonatal Screening for Mucopolysaccharidoses)
Open AccessReview
Neonatal Screening for MPS Disorders in Latin America: A Survey of Pilot Initiatives
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 90; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040090 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Newborn screening enables the diagnosis of treatable disorders at the early stages, and because of its countless benefits, conditions have been continuously added to screening panels, allowing early intervention, aiming for the prevention of irreversible manifestations and even premature death. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are [...] Read more.
Newborn screening enables the diagnosis of treatable disorders at the early stages, and because of its countless benefits, conditions have been continuously added to screening panels, allowing early intervention, aiming for the prevention of irreversible manifestations and even premature death. Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are lysosomal storage disorders than can benefit from an early diagnosis, and thus are being recommended for newborn screening. They are multisystemic progressive disorders, with treatment options already available for several MPS types. MPS I was the first MPS disorder enrolled in the newborn screening (NBS) panel in the USA and a few other countries, and other MPS types are expected to be added. Very few studies about NBS for MPS in Latin America have been published so far. In this review, we report the results of pilot studies performed in Mexico and Brazil using different methodologies: tandem mass spectrometry, molecular analysis, digital microfluidics, and fluorimetry. These experiences are important to report and discuss, as we expect to have several MPS types added to NBS panels shortly. This addition will enable timely diagnosis of MPS, avoiding the long diagnostic odyssey that is part of the current natural history of this group of diseases, and leading to a better outcome for the affected patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonatal Screening for Mucopolysaccharidoses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Newborn Screening for Pompe Disease: Pennsylvania Experience
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040089 - 13 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 618
Abstract
Pennsylvania started newborn screening for Pompe disease in February 2016. Between February 2016 and December 2019, 531,139 newborns were screened. Alpha-Glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity is measured by flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry (FIA/MS/MS) and full sequencing of the GAA gene is performed as a [...] Read more.
Pennsylvania started newborn screening for Pompe disease in February 2016. Between February 2016 and December 2019, 531,139 newborns were screened. Alpha-Glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity is measured by flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry (FIA/MS/MS) and full sequencing of the GAA gene is performed as a second-tier test in all newborns with low GAA enzyme activity [<2.10 micromole/L/h]. A total of 115 newborns had low GAA enzyme activity and abnormal genetic testing and were referred to metabolic centers. Two newborns were diagnosed with Infantile Onset Pompe Disease (IOPD), and 31 newborns were confirmed to have Late Onset Pompe Disease (LOPD). The incidence of IOPD + LOPD was 1:16,095. A total of 30 patients were compound heterozygous for one pathogenic and one variant of unknown significance (VUS) mutation or two VUS mutations and were defined as suspected LOPD. The incidence of IOPD + LOPD + suspected LOPD was 1: 8431 in PA. We also found 35 carriers, 15 pseudodeficiency carriers, and 2 false positive newborns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Newborn Screening for Pompe Disease)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
A Biochemical Platform to Define the Relative Specific Activity of IDUA Variants Identified by Newborn Screening
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 88; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040088 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 489
Abstract
The lysosomal storage disorder, mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPSI), results from mutations in IDUA, the gene that encodes the glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzyme α-L-iduronidase. Newborn screening efforts for MPSI have greatly increased the number of novel IDUA variants identified, but with insufficient experimental evidence regarding their [...] Read more.
The lysosomal storage disorder, mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPSI), results from mutations in IDUA, the gene that encodes the glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzyme α-L-iduronidase. Newborn screening efforts for MPSI have greatly increased the number of novel IDUA variants identified, but with insufficient experimental evidence regarding their pathogenicity, many of these variants remain classified as variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Defining pathogenicity for novel IDUA variants is critical for decisions regarding medical management and early intervention. Here, we describe a biochemical platform for the characterization of IDUA variants that relies on viral delivery of IDUA DNA into IDUA-deficient HAP1 cells and isolation of single cell expression clones. The relative specific activity of wild-type and variant α-iduronidase was determined using a combination of Western blot analysis and α-iduronidase activity assays. The specific activity of each variant enzyme was consistent across different single cell clones despite variable IDUA expression and could be accurately determined down to 0.05–0.01% of WT α-iduronidase activity. With this strategy we compared the specific activities of known pseudodeficiency variants (p.His82Gln, p.Ala79Thr, p.Val322Glu, p.Asp223Asn) or pathogenic variants (p.Ser633Leu, p.His240Arg) with variants of uncertain significance (p.Ser586Phe, p.Ile272Leu). The p.Ser633Leu and p.His240Arg variants both show very low activities consistent with their association with Scheie syndrome. In our experiments, however, p.His240Arg exhibited a specific activity five times higher than p.Ser633Leu in contrast to other reports showing equivalent activity. Cell clones expressing the p.Ser586Phe and p.Ile272Leu variants had specific activities in the range of other pseudodeficiency variants tested. Our findings show that pseudodeficiency and pathogenic variants can be distinguished from each other with regard to specific activity, and confirms that all the pseudodeficiency variants variably reduce α-iduronidase activity. We envision this platform will be a valuable resource for the rigorous assessment of the novel IDUA variants emerging from the expansion of newborn screening efforts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonatal Screening for Mucopolysaccharidoses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessObituary
Fred Lorey Passed Away
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 87; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040087 - 04 Nov 2020
Viewed by 559
Abstract
To tackle the ever-increasing ambitions of the International Journal of Neonatal Screening (IJNS), in November 2019, we were looking for an Associate Editor to strengthen the Editorial board of IJNS [...] Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessObituary
Zoltan Lukacs Passed Away
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040086 - 03 Nov 2020
Viewed by 501
Abstract
It is with great sadness that we have to inform you of the passing on 13 August 2020, of Dr [...] Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Report of Five Years of Experience in Neonatal Screening for Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I and Review of the Literature
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040085 - 02 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 655
Abstract
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive lysosomal storage disease, with neurological and visceral involvement, in which early diagnosis through newborn screening (NBS) and early treatment can improve outcomes. We present our first 5 years of experience with laboratory and clinical management [...] Read more.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive lysosomal storage disease, with neurological and visceral involvement, in which early diagnosis through newborn screening (NBS) and early treatment can improve outcomes. We present our first 5 years of experience with laboratory and clinical management of NBS for MPS I. Since 2015, we have screened 160,011 newborns by measuring α-L-iduronidase (IDUA) activity and, since 2019, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in dried blood spot (DBS) as a second-tier test. Positive screening patients were referred to our clinic for confirmatory clinical and molecular testing. We found two patients affected by MPS I (incidence of 1:80,005). Before the introduction of second-tier testing, we found a high rate of false-positives due to pseudodeficiency. With GAG analysis in DBS as a second-tier test, no false-positive newborns were referred to our clinic. The confirmed patients were early treated with enzyme replacement therapy and bone-marrow transplantation. For both, the clinical outcome of the disease is in the normal range. Our experience confirms that NBS for MPS I is feasible and effective, along with the need to include GAG assay as a second-tier test. Follow-up of the two positive cases identified confirms the importance of early diagnosis through NBS and early treatment to improve the outcome of these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonatal Screening for Mucopolysaccharidoses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Development of Strategies to Decrease False Positive Results in Newborn Screening
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040084 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 677
Abstract
The expansion of national newborn screening (NBS) programmes has provided significant benefits in the diagnosis and early treatment of several rare, heritable conditions, preventing adverse health outcomes for most affected infants. New technological developments have enabled the implementation of testing panel covering over [...] Read more.
The expansion of national newborn screening (NBS) programmes has provided significant benefits in the diagnosis and early treatment of several rare, heritable conditions, preventing adverse health outcomes for most affected infants. New technological developments have enabled the implementation of testing panel covering over 50 disorders. Consequently, the increment of false positive rate has led to a high number of healthy infants recalled for expensive and often invasive additional testing, opening a debate about the harm-benefit ratio of the expanded newborn screening. The false-positive rate represents a challenge for healthcare providers working in NBS systems. Here, we give an overview on the most commonly used strategies for decreasing the adverse effects due to inconclusive screening results. The focus is on NBS performance improvement through the implementation of analytical methods, the application of new and more informative biomarkers, and by using post-analytical interpretive tools. These strategies, used as part of the NBS process, can to enhance the positive predictive value of the test and reduce the parental anxiety and healthcare costs related to the unnecessary tests and procedures. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Instability of Acylcarnitines in Stored Dried Blood Spots: The Impact on Retrospective Analysis of Biomarkers for Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040083 - 02 Nov 2020
Viewed by 576
Abstract
Stored dried blood spots (DBS) can provide valuable samples for the retrospective diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism, and for validation studies for newborn blood spot screening programs. Acylcarnitine species are subject to degradation upon long-term storage at room temperature, but limited data [...] Read more.
Stored dried blood spots (DBS) can provide valuable samples for the retrospective diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism, and for validation studies for newborn blood spot screening programs. Acylcarnitine species are subject to degradation upon long-term storage at room temperature, but limited data are available on the stability in original samples and the impact on acylcarnitine ratios. We analysed complete acylcarnitine profiles by flow-injection tandem mass spectrometry in 598 anonymous DBS stored from 2013 to 2017, at +4 °C during the first year and thereafter at room temperature. The concentrations of C2-, C3-, C4-, C5-, C6-, C8-, C10:1-, C10-, C12:1-, C12-, C14:1-, C14-, C16:1-, C16-, C18:2-, C18:1-, C18-, C5OH+C4DC-, C18:1OH-, and C16DC-carnitine decreased significantly, whereas a positive trend was found for free carnitine. Only the C4/C8-, C8/C10-, C14:1/C10- and C14:1/C16-carnitine ratios appeared robust for the metabolite instability. The metabolite instability may provoke the wrong interpretation of test results in the case of retrospective studies and risk the inaccurate estimation of cut-off targets in validation studies when only stored control DBS are used. We recommend including control DBS in diagnostic, retrospective cohort studies, and, for validation studies, we recommend using fresh samples and repeatedly re-evaluating cut-off targets. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Challenges in Assessing the Cost-Effectiveness of Newborn Screening: The Example of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040082 - 25 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 748
Abstract
Generalizing about the cost-effectiveness of newborn screening (NBS) is difficult due to the heterogeneity of disorders included in NBS panels, along with data limitations. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent evidence about cost-effectiveness should influence decisions to screen for specific disorders. Screening [...] Read more.
Generalizing about the cost-effectiveness of newborn screening (NBS) is difficult due to the heterogeneity of disorders included in NBS panels, along with data limitations. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent evidence about cost-effectiveness should influence decisions to screen for specific disorders. Screening newborns for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency can serve as a useful test case, since there is no global consensus on whether CAH should be part of NBS panels. Published and unpublished cost-effectiveness analyses of CAH screening have yielded mixed findings, largely due to differences in methods and data sources for estimating health outcomes and associated costs of early versus late diagnosis as well as between-country differences. Understanding these methodological challenges can help inform future analyses and could also help interested policymakers interpret the results of economic evaluations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Newborn Screening for X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy in Georgia: Experiences from a Pilot Study Screening of 51,081 Newborns
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040081 - 23 Oct 2020
Viewed by 600
Abstract
We screened 51,081 newborns for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) using a two-tiered strategy quantifying very long chain lysophosphatadylcholines (LPC). Our testing strategy used flow injection tandem mass spectrometry for the first-tier analysis of LPCs, and second-tier quantification of C26:0 LPC using liquid chromatography tandem [...] Read more.
We screened 51,081 newborns for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) using a two-tiered strategy quantifying very long chain lysophosphatadylcholines (LPC). Our testing strategy used flow injection tandem mass spectrometry for the first-tier analysis of LPCs, and second-tier quantification of C26:0 LPC using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. There were 364 specimens considered abnormal using our first-tier algorithm that relied on the four LPC measurements and post-analytical tools. Second-tier test results were reported as normal or abnormal based on a cutoff for the single analyte, C26:0 LPC. Eleven cases were reported as abnormal based on second-tier test results. One male with ALD was identified, and two females with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders were also identified. A single female case remains unresolved, due to a loss to follow up after a negative molecular test result for ABCD1 gene sequencing. The positive predictive value for confirmed, clinically relevant disorders during this pilot study was 27.3%. Challenges identified during the study period were based around coverage for confirmatory testing, particularly if family members needed molecular testing, which is an ongoing issue with newborn screening in Georgia. We also encountered issues with the follow up for a patient who remained asymptomatic. Due to the different timelines involved with clinical findings in ALD, follow-up coordination may be more difficult, particularly if the child identified by newborn screening (NBS) is the only member of the family affected, or able to be tested. Full article
Open AccessReview
Translating Molecular Technologies into Routine Newborn Screening Practice
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040080 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 744
Abstract
As biotechnologies advance and better treatment regimens emerge, there is a trend toward applying more advanced technologies and adding more conditions to the newborn screening (NBS) panel. In the current Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP), all conditions but one, congenital hypothyroidism, have well-defined [...] Read more.
As biotechnologies advance and better treatment regimens emerge, there is a trend toward applying more advanced technologies and adding more conditions to the newborn screening (NBS) panel. In the current Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP), all conditions but one, congenital hypothyroidism, have well-defined genes and inheritance patterns, so it is beneficial to incorporate molecular testing in NBS when it is necessary and appropriate. Indeed, the applications of molecular technologies have taken NBS to previously uncharted territory. In this paper, based on our own program experience and what has been reported in the literature, we describe current practices regarding the applications of molecular technologies in routine NBS practice in the era of genomic and precision medicine. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Validation and Implementation of a Highly Sensitive and Efficient Newborn Screening Assay for Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040079 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 760
Abstract
Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). MPS II satisfies all criteria defined by the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children [...] Read more.
Mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (MPS II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS). MPS II satisfies all criteria defined by the Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children (ACHDNC) for inclusion in the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) for newborn screening, apart from the fact that only minimal prospective population screening data are available. This report details the analytical validation, clinical validation, and implementation of a fluorometric assay for measurement of IDS activity in newborn dried blood spot (DBS) specimens at the Missouri State Public Health Laboratory (MSPHL). The assay is performed in a microwell plate format requiring approximately 15 min of hands-on time per plate and an incubation time of two hours. The analytical validation of this assay included linearity, analytical sensitivity, precision, and carry-over testing. Clinical validation was completed using more than 5000 deidentified presumptive normal newborn DBS specimens as well as seven specimens from patients known to be affected with MPS II. Following validation, MSPHL began prospective screening using the IDS assay on 1 November 2018. In the first 18 months of screening (to 30 June 2020), 146,954 specimens were prospectively screened using the method. Two newborns were identified with severe Hunter syndrome and the assay had a presumptive positive rate of 0.022%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonatal Screening for Mucopolysaccharidoses)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Digital Microfluidics in Newborn Screening for Mucopolysaccharidoses: A Progress Report
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040078 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Newborn screening (NBS) for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I, Hurler syndrome) is currently conducted in about two-fifths of the NBS programs in the United States and in a few other countries. Screening is performed by measurement of residual activity of the enzyme alpha [...] Read more.
Newborn screening (NBS) for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I, Hurler syndrome) is currently conducted in about two-fifths of the NBS programs in the United States and in a few other countries. Screening is performed by measurement of residual activity of the enzyme alpha-l-iduronidase in dried blood spots using either tandem mass spectrometry or digital microfluidic fluorometry (DMF). In this article, we focus on the development and practical experience of using DMF to screen for MPS I in the USA. By means of their responses to a questionnaire, we determined for each responding program that is screening for MPS I using DMF the screen positive rate, follow-up methods, and classification of confirmed cases as either severe or attenuated. Overall, the results show that at the time of reporting, over 1.3 million newborns in the US were screened for MPS I using DMF, 2094 (0.173%) of whom were screen positive. Of these, severe MPS I was confirmed in five cases, attenuated MPS I was confirmed in two cases, and undetermined phenotype was reported in one case. We conclude that DMF is an effective and economical method to screen for MPS I and recommend second-tier testing owing to high screen positive rates. Preliminary results of NBS for MPS II and MPS III using DMF are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neonatal Screening for Mucopolysaccharidoses)
Open AccessReview
Considering Proximal Urea Cycle Disorders in Expanded Newborn Screening
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040077 - 08 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Proximal urea cycle disorders (PUCDs) have adverse outcomes such as intellectual disability and death, which may benefit from newborn screening (NBS) through early detection and prevention with early treatment. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D) are screened in [...] Read more.
Proximal urea cycle disorders (PUCDs) have adverse outcomes such as intellectual disability and death, which may benefit from newborn screening (NBS) through early detection and prevention with early treatment. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D) are screened in six and eight states in the United States. We analyzed current evidence to see if it supports inclusion of PUCDs in the NBS panels based upon prevention potential, medical, diagnostic, treatment, and public health rationales. A literature review was performed in PubMed using MESH terms for OTCD, CPS1D, and NAGSD. A systematic review was performed in the hallmark of NBS inclusion criteria. We reviewed 31 articles. Molecular and biochemical diagnosis is available to provide diagnostic evidence. Untreated PUCDs have a significant burden with considerable developmental delay and mortality that may improve with early treatment. Tandem mass spectrometry can be used for NBS for PUCDs; however, citrulline and glutamine alone are not specific. Medical treatments currently available for PUCDs meet existing medical, diagnostic, treatment, and public health rationales. Improvement in NBS algorithms to increase sensitivity and specificity will allow earlier diagnosis and treatment to potentially improve disability and mortality rates. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
We All Have a Role to Play: Redressing Inequities for Children Living with CAH and Other Chronic Health Conditions of Childhood in Resource-Poor Settings
Int. J. Neonatal Screen. 2020, 6(4), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijns6040076 - 25 Sep 2020
Viewed by 767
Abstract
CLAN (Caring and Living as Neighbours) is an Australian-based non-governmental organisation (NGO) committed to equity for children living with chronic health conditions in resource-poor settings. Since 2004, CLAN has collaborated with a broad range of partners across the Asia Pacific region to improve [...] Read more.
CLAN (Caring and Living as Neighbours) is an Australian-based non-governmental organisation (NGO) committed to equity for children living with chronic health conditions in resource-poor settings. Since 2004, CLAN has collaborated with a broad range of partners across the Asia Pacific region to improve quality of life for children living with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This exploratory case study uses the Knowledge to Action (KTA) framework to analyse CLAN’s activities for children living with CAH in the Asia Pacific. The seven stages of the KTA action cycle inform a systematic examination of comprehensive, collaborative, sustained actions to address a complex health challenge. The KTA framework demonstrates the “how” of CLAN’s approach to knowledge creation and exchange, and the centrality of community development to multisectoral collaborative action across a range of conditions, cultures and countries to redressing child health inequities. This includes a commitment to: affordable access to essential medicines and equipment; education, research and advocacy; optimisation of medical management; encouragement of family support groups; efforts to reduce financial burdens; and ethical, transparent program management as critical components of success. Improvements in quality of life and health outcomes are achievable for children living with CAH and other chronic health conditions in resource-poor settings. CLAN’s strategic framework for action offers a model for those committed to #LeaveNoChildBehind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CAH Screening—Challenges and Opportunities)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop