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Designs, Volume 8, Issue 3 (June 2024) – 22 articles

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20 pages, 612 KiB  
Article
Requirements and Characteristics for the Development and Selection of Design Methods
by Johannes Matschewsky, Sergio A. Brambila-Macias, Abhijna Neramballi and Tomohiko Sakao
Designs 2024, 8(3), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030059 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 237
Abstract
While many design methods are developed, tested and reported in the literature, their utilization in industry practice remains low. Design methods are receiving substantial scholarly focus and are considered central to efficiently achieving reliable outcomes in the engineering design process. They are particularly [...] Read more.
While many design methods are developed, tested and reported in the literature, their utilization in industry practice remains low. Design methods are receiving substantial scholarly focus and are considered central to efficiently achieving reliable outcomes in the engineering design process. They are particularly vital as industrial companies increasingly transition to integrated offerings of products and services with a lifecycle perspective, leading to additional uncertainty and complexity. Thus, the presented research aims to support method selection and development, focusing on resource-efficient offerings. This is achieved through an in-depth, practice-centric, empirical study of users’ requirements of design methods and the corresponding characteristics of design methods aimed at meeting these requirements in resource-efficient offerings. Highly relevant insight supporting a broad set of stakeholders is reported. Firstly, the user requirements and method characteristics reported support practitioners seeking to identify a design method fitting their needs. Secondly, academics and practitioners aiming to enhance the usefulness and impact of a design method may benefit from considering these requirements and characteristics during method development. Lastly, the systematic approach taken in this research can be applied by both method developers and potential users to identify additional requirements and corresponding characteristics specific to their conditions. Two use cases for the results attained are reported, focusing on applying the research results for method selection and deriving overall guidelines for developing design methods directed toward resource-efficient offerings. Full article
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20 pages, 7936 KiB  
Article
Quadcopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Structural Design Using an Integrated Approach of Topology Optimization and Additive Manufacturing
by Luttfi A. Al-Haddad, Alaa Abdulhady Jaber, Wojciech Giernacki, Zeashan Hameed Khan, Khalid Mohsin Ali, Mauwafak Ali Tawafik and Amjad J. Humaidi
Designs 2024, 8(3), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030058 - 14 Jun 2024
Viewed by 311
Abstract
The performance of quadcopter frames, particularly in terms of weight and crash resistance, is significantly influenced by their structural design and manufacturing process. In this work, a methodology is proposed that integrates advanced principles of topology optimization (TO) and additive manufacturing (AM) techniques [...] Read more.
The performance of quadcopter frames, particularly in terms of weight and crash resistance, is significantly influenced by their structural design and manufacturing process. In this work, a methodology is proposed that integrates advanced principles of topology optimization (TO) and additive manufacturing (AM) techniques to optimize the frame structure for improved performance. First, an analysis is conducted to evaluate existing quadcopter frame configurations, identifying areas for improvement. Experimental evaluations of thrust and moment of motors are performed to assess the performance of the enhanced quadcopter frame, with a focus on advancing the design through computer-aided simulations of static structural analysis and impact tests. The TO technique is then employed to determine the optimal distribution of material within the frame, governed by constraints such as weight reduction and mechanical strength. The results demonstrate that the overall performance of a quadcopter frame is significantly improved by the proposed methodology, showcasing advancements in stability, weight reduction, and crashworthiness. The resulting optimized frame design is subsequently manufactured using AM methods, which offer advantages such as design flexibility and the ability to produce complex geometries. The findings of this study contribute to the field of quadcopter design and optimization by highlighting the synergies between TO and AM techniques. An avenue is offered for the development of lightweight and robust quadcopter frames, as the capabilities and performance of quadcopter systems are advanced. The insights gained from this research open up opportunities for further advancements in the design and manufacturing of UAVs. Full article
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11 pages, 3181 KiB  
Article
Biomechanics of a Novel 3D Mandibular Osteotomy Design
by Carlos Aurelio Andreucci, Elza M. M. Fonseca and Renato N. Jorge
Designs 2024, 8(3), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030057 - 13 Jun 2024
Viewed by 332
Abstract
Elective mandibular surgical osteotomies are commonly used to correct craniofacial discrepancies. Since the modifications proposed by Obwegeser, Dal Pont, and Hunsuck, no effective variations have been proposed to improve the biomechanical results of these mandibular osteotomies. With technological developments and the use of [...] Read more.
Elective mandibular surgical osteotomies are commonly used to correct craniofacial discrepancies. Since the modifications proposed by Obwegeser, Dal Pont, and Hunsuck, no effective variations have been proposed to improve the biomechanical results of these mandibular osteotomies. With technological developments and the use of three-dimensional images from CT scans of patients, much has been done to plan and predict outcomes with greater precision and control. To date, 3D imaging and additive manufacturing technologies have not been used to their full potential to create innovative mandibular osteotomies. The use of 3D digital images obtained from CT scans as DICOM files, which were then converted to STL files, proved to be an efficient method of developing an innovative mandibular ramus beveled osteotomy technique. The new mandibular osteotomy is designed to reduce the likelihood of vasculo-nervous damage to the mandible, reduce the time and ease of surgery, and reduce post-operative complications. The proposed osteotomy does not affect traditional osteotomies. Anatomical structures such as the inferior alveolar nerve and intraoral surgical access were preserved and maintained, respectively. The results obtained from the digital images were validated on an additively manufactured 3D synthetic bone model. Full article
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20 pages, 11203 KiB  
Article
Dimensional Accuracy in 4D-Printed PLA Objects with Holes: Experimental and Numerical Investigations
by Alexandru-Antonio Ene, Tudor George Alexandru and Diana Popescu
Designs 2024, 8(3), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030056 - 6 Jun 2024
Viewed by 342
Abstract
This study investigates the impact of material and process parameters—specifically, filament color, infill density, and pattern—on the dimensional accuracy of 4D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) objects featuring holes of varying diameters (6, 8, and 10 mm) that undergo a heat-induced recovery process. The objective [...] Read more.
This study investigates the impact of material and process parameters—specifically, filament color, infill density, and pattern—on the dimensional accuracy of 4D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) objects featuring holes of varying diameters (6, 8, and 10 mm) that undergo a heat-induced recovery process. The objective was to understand how these factors affect shape retention and the dimensional accuracy of holes through a comparative analysis of the diameters before and after recovery. Increased variability in the hole diameters was noted after recovery, regardless of the values of the independent variables. The objects did not fully return to their original planar shape, and the holes did not completely return to their circular form, resulting in smaller diameters for each sample. No significant differences in the hole diameters could be determined. Additionally, there was no consistent trend in identifying the most influential parameter affecting the accuracy of the recovered holes. However, it was observed that higher infill densities improved shape retention. A quasi-static finite elements analysis model was developed to capture the mechanical behavior of the 4D-printed parts. This model incorporated temperature-dependent material characteristics to predict the strain occurring near the holes. Nodal displacements were defined according to the deformed shape. A correlation was established between the observed strains and the post-recovery dimensional accuracy of the specimens. The importance of this work was demonstrated through a case study involving a two-sieve filtering device for small objects. Full article
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19 pages, 4686 KiB  
Article
Experimental Behaviour of Tensioner for Rigid Hangers of Arch Bridges
by Michele Fabio Granata, Benedetta Fontana, Marco Rosone and Giovanni Culotta
Designs 2024, 8(3), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030055 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 308
Abstract
In steel tied arch bridges where the hangers are made of rigid bars, the replacement of damaged hangers is rather complex. In fact, while generally the cable hangers are already prepared with anchors at the ends and their replacement traces the initial stages [...] Read more.
In steel tied arch bridges where the hangers are made of rigid bars, the replacement of damaged hangers is rather complex. In fact, while generally the cable hangers are already prepared with anchors at the ends and their replacement traces the initial stages of construction with their prestressing, on the contrary, the rigid bars are welded to the arch and the deck, so their replacement must include the design of a new suspension system that allows the insertion of a pretension where this had never been considered. To check the reliability of this new system, a prototype of tensioner was studied for the case of a steel arch bridge in which the high level of corrosion made it necessary to replace all the original hangers with new ones. This entailed the need to test the tensioner performance with the aim of ensuring the axial force transmission between the two hanger segments without slippage in the threads, as well as to test the correct tension setting before construction and putting into service the hangers to be replaced. For this reason, a predictive experimental campaign was carried out on a prototype by means of tests for the mechanical characterization of the materials used, tensile tests of the system, and tensioning tests under load, measuring the displacements and strains of the system elements. The results of the tests, with slippage in the threads limited to the 2% of total elongation, and the turnaround-stressing curves were useful for the definition of the pieces to be assembled during on-site work and for addressing the operating procedures of the tensioning phases on-site during hanger replacement. Validation with the on-site monitoring of stressing operation was conducted at the end; the monitoring of tension through dynamic tests confirmed the agreement of on-site results with the predictive loading tests of the experimental campaign on the tensioner prototype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Resilient Civil Infrastructure)
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13 pages, 300 KiB  
Article
State Control Design of Ostensible Metzler Linear Systems with Unsigned Input Parameters
by Dušan Krokavec and Anna Filasová
Designs 2024, 8(3), 54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030054 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 271
Abstract
This paper deals with the design of a complete state control for input unsigned, rank deficient matrix parameters of a linear system with system dynamics defined by ostensible structures of Metzler matrices. The proposed solution is based on the principle of diagonal stabilization [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the design of a complete state control for input unsigned, rank deficient matrix parameters of a linear system with system dynamics defined by ostensible structures of Metzler matrices. The proposed solution is based on the principle of diagonal stabilization of positive systems and uses a stabilizing additional component over the decomposition of the Metzler matrix in solving the incomplete internal positivity of such linear system structures. The novelty of the proposed approach is the unified representation of the parametric constraints of the Metzler matrix and the structurally constrained system inputs using linear matrix inequalities, which guarantees that the closed-loop system will be asymptotically stable. Despite the complexity of the constraint conditions on this class of linear continuous systems, the design conditions are formulated using sharp linear matrix inequalities only. A detailed design process is presented using a system-linearized mathematical model to verify the superiority and practicality of the proposed method. Full article
17 pages, 3419 KiB  
Article
Multi-Objective Optimization of a Two-Stage Helical Gearbox Using MARCOS Method
by Van-Thanh Dinh, Huu-Danh Tran, Quoc-Hung Tran, Duc-Binh Vu, Duong Vu, Ngoc-Pi Vu and Thanh-Tu Nguyen
Designs 2024, 8(3), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030053 - 5 Jun 2024
Viewed by 316
Abstract
In order to address the Multi-Objective Optimization Problem (MOOP) in building a two-stage helical gearbox, this work presents a novel application of the Multi-Criterion Decision-Making (MCDM) method. The aim of the study is to determine the optimal primary design factors that will increase [...] Read more.
In order to address the Multi-Objective Optimization Problem (MOOP) in building a two-stage helical gearbox, this work presents a novel application of the Multi-Criterion Decision-Making (MCDM) method. The aim of the study is to determine the optimal primary design factors that will increase gearbox efficiency while decreasing gearbox volume. Three main design parameters were chosen for assessment in this work: the first stage’s gear ratio, and the first and second stages’ Coefficients of Wheel Face Width (CWFW). In addition, the MOOP is divided into two phases: phase 1 solves the single-objective optimization problem to reduce the gap between variable levels, and phase 2 solves the MOOP to determine the optimal primary design factors. Furthermore, the Entropy approach was picked to compute the weight criteria, and the MARCOS method was chosen as an MCDM method to handle the multi-objective optimization issue. The following are important characteristics of the study: Firstly, the MCDM method (MARCOS technique) was successfully applied to solve a MOOP for the first time. Secondly, this work has looked into power losses during idle motion to calculate the efficiency of a two-stage helical gearbox. The results of the study were used in the design of a two-stage helical gearbox in order to identify the optimal values for three important design parameters. Full article
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17 pages, 3396 KiB  
Article
Challenges That Impact the Development of a Multi-Generational Low-Carbon Passive House in a Small City
by Hanan Wehbi and Tahar Messadi
Designs 2024, 8(3), 52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030052 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 391
Abstract
The impact of the building and construction sector on climate change is becoming more important and recognized. Multiple initiatives around the globe have been utilized to design and develop residential structures, aiming to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions; yet, there are several [...] Read more.
The impact of the building and construction sector on climate change is becoming more important and recognized. Multiple initiatives around the globe have been utilized to design and develop residential structures, aiming to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions; yet, there are several barriers to effective construction processes. This research outlines the gaps and barriers encountered by key stakeholders that were engaged during the preconstruction phase of a three-story multi-generational low-impact Passive House in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Through direct observation and open-ended interviews, the primary data are collected, and secondary data from a comprehensive literature review are detailed to capture the challenges faced during different phases of the implementation of sustainable residential dwellings. This study highlights the limited knowledge and experience in sustainable building design as a common barrier among participants along with the insufficiency of the regulatory framework governing adopted building codes in Arkansas, in facilitating sustainable building design implementation. These challenges, among others, are then thoroughly examined, and recommendations to address them are described. Full article
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11 pages, 4009 KiB  
Article
Introduction of Hybrid Additive Manufacturing for Producing Multi-Material Artificial Organs for Education and In Vitro Testing
by Konstantinos Chatzipapas, Anastasia Nika and Agathoklis A. Krimpenis
Designs 2024, 8(3), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030051 - 28 May 2024
Viewed by 448
Abstract
The evolution of 3D printing has ushered in accessibility and cost-effectiveness, spanning various industries including biomedical engineering, education, and microfluidics. In biomedical engineering, it encompasses bioprinting tissues, producing prosthetics, porous metal orthopedic implants, and facilitating educational models. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing approaches and, more [...] Read more.
The evolution of 3D printing has ushered in accessibility and cost-effectiveness, spanning various industries including biomedical engineering, education, and microfluidics. In biomedical engineering, it encompasses bioprinting tissues, producing prosthetics, porous metal orthopedic implants, and facilitating educational models. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing approaches and, more specifically, the integration of Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) with bio-inkjet printing offers the advantages of improved accuracy, structural support, and controlled geometry, yet challenges persist in cell survival, interaction, and nutrient delivery within printed structures. The goal of this study was to develop and present a low-cost way to produce physical phantoms of human organs that could be used for research and training, bridging the gap between the use of highly detailed computational phantoms and real-life clinical applications. To this purpose, this study utilized anonymized clinical Computed Tomography (CT) data to create a liver physical model using the Creality Ender-3 printer. Polylactic Acid (PLA), Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA), and light-bodied silicone (Polysiloxane) materials were employed for printing the liver including its veins and arteries. In brief, PLA was used to create a mold of a liver to be filled with biocompatible light-bodied silicone. Molds of the veins and arteries were printed using PVA and then inserted in the liver model to create empty channel. In addition, the PVA was then washed out by the final product using warm water. Despite minor imperfections due to the printer’s limitations, the final product imitates the computational model accurately enough. Precision adjustments in the design phase compensated for this variation. The proposed novel low-cost 3D printing methodology successfully produced an anatomically accurate liver physical model, presenting promising applications in medical education, research, and surgical planning. Notably, its implications extend to medical training, personalized medicine, and organ transplantation. The technology’s potential includes injection training for medical professionals, personalized anthropomorphic phantoms for radiation therapy, and the future prospect of creating functional living organs for organ transplantation, albeit requiring significant interdisciplinary collaboration and financial investment. This technique, while showcasing immense potential in biomedical applications, requires further advancements and interdisciplinary cooperation for its optimal utilization in revolutionizing medical science and benefiting patient healthcare. Full article
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22 pages, 2224 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Accuracy of CAD Modeling in Engineering and Medical Industries Based on Measurement Data Using Reverse Engineering Methods
by Paweł Turek, Wojciech Bezłada, Klaudia Cierpisz, Karol Dubiel, Adrian Frydrych and Jacek Misiura
Designs 2024, 8(3), 50; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030050 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
The reverse engineering (RE) process is often necessary in today’s engineering and medical industries. Expertise in measurement technology, data processing, and CAD modeling is required to ensure accurate reconstruction of an object’s geometry. However, errors are generated at every stage of geometric reconstruction, [...] Read more.
The reverse engineering (RE) process is often necessary in today’s engineering and medical industries. Expertise in measurement technology, data processing, and CAD modeling is required to ensure accurate reconstruction of an object’s geometry. However, errors are generated at every stage of geometric reconstruction, affecting the dimensional and geometric accuracy of the final 3D-CAD model. In this article, the geometry of reconstructed models was measured using contact and optical methods. The measurement data representing 2D profiles, 3D point clouds, and 2D images acquired in the reconstruction process were saved to a stereolithography (STL) model. The reconstructed models were then subjected to a CAD modeling process, and the accuracy of the parametric modeling was evaluated by comparing the 3D-CAD model to the 3D-STL model. Based on the results, the model used for clamping and positioning parts to perform the machining process and the connecting rod provided the most accurate mapping errors. These models represented deviations within ±0.02 mm and ±0.05 mm. The accuracy of CAD modeling for the turbine blade model and the pelvis part was comparable, presenting deviations within ±0.1 mm. However, the helical gear and the femur models showed the highest deviations of about ±0.2 mm. The procedures presented in the article specify the methods and resolution of the measurement systems and suggest CAD modeling strategies to minimize reconstruction errors. These results can be used as a starting point for further tests to optimize CAD modeling procedures based on the obtained measurement data. Full article
27 pages, 2962 KiB  
Review
Product Design Trends within the Footwear Industry: A Review
by Lazaros Firtikiadis, Athanasios Manavis, Panagiotis Kyratsis and Nikolaos Efkolidis
Designs 2024, 8(3), 49; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030049 - 24 May 2024
Viewed by 632
Abstract
Computer technology influences the capability to enhance the functionality of manufacturing and product design technologies. Innovations in computational design and digital manufacturing empower designers and manufacturers to create novel representations and algorithms for designing, analyzing, and planning the production of highly complicated products [...] Read more.
Computer technology influences the capability to enhance the functionality of manufacturing and product design technologies. Innovations in computational design and digital manufacturing empower designers and manufacturers to create novel representations and algorithms for designing, analyzing, and planning the production of highly complicated products achievable through state-of-the-art technology. Various principles, including computational physics, geometric reasoning, and automated spatial planning, enable engineers to generate entirely new categories of products in the footwear industry. This study aims to review the methods and tools that have been published in the literature for the last twenty years, and provide a better understanding of the parameters, tools, and controls that contribute to the design and manufacturing processes of shoes. The main focus is on highlighting the product design-related trends within the footwear industry. A structured framework becomes apparent in the literature through the grouping and presentation of information. This framework facilitates drawing conclusions about the trends and existing needs derived from in-depth research in the field of footwear. Additionally, it reveals the upcoming methods and tools that will contribute to the enhancement and development of this emerging and promising industry sector. In conclusion, the categorization limitation within the footwear industry could serve as the foundation for exploring key areas to be analyzed further in other industries, for instance, in furniture, clothing, and packaging. Full article
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30 pages, 3617 KiB  
Article
Energy Requirement Modeling for Automated Guided Vehicles Considering Material Flow and Layout Data
by Marvin Sperling and Kai Furmans
Designs 2024, 8(3), 48; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030048 - 21 May 2024
Viewed by 635
Abstract
Saving energy and resources has become increasingly important for industrial applications. Foremost, this requires knowledge about the energy requirement. For this purpose, this paper presents a state-based energy requirement model for mobile robots, e.g., automated guided vehicles or autonomous mobile robots, that determines [...] Read more.
Saving energy and resources has become increasingly important for industrial applications. Foremost, this requires knowledge about the energy requirement. For this purpose, this paper presents a state-based energy requirement model for mobile robots, e.g., automated guided vehicles or autonomous mobile robots, that determines the energy requirement by integrating the linearized power requirement parameters within each system state of the vehicle. The model and their respective system states were verified using a qualitative process analysis of 25 mobile robots from different manufacturers and validated by comparing simulated data with experimental data. For this purpose, power consumption measurements over 461 operating hours were performed in experiments with two different industrial mobile robots. System components of a mobile robot, which require energy, were classified and their power consumptions were measured individually. The parameters in the study consist of vehicle speed, load-handling duration, load, utilization, material flow and layout data, and charging infrastructure system frequency, yet these varied throughout the experiments. Validation of the model through real experiments shows that, in a 99% confidence interval, the relative deviation in the modeled power requirement for a small-scale vehicle is [1.86%,1.14%], whereas, for a mid-scale vehicle, it is [0.73%,0.31%]. This sets a benchmark for modeling the energy requirement of mobile robots with multiple influencing factors, allowing for an accurate estimation of the energy requirement of mobile robots. Full article
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21 pages, 11053 KiB  
Article
An Innovative Mechanical Approach to Mitigating Torque Fluctuations in IC Engines during Idle Operation
by Daniel Silva Cardoso, Paulo Oliveira Fael, Pedro Dinis Gaspar and António Espírito-Santo
Designs 2024, 8(3), 47; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030047 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Internal combustion engines have been a major contributor to air pollution. Replacing these engines with electric propulsion systems presents significant challenges due to different countries’ needs and limitations. An active, purely mechanical solution to the problem of irregular torque production in an alternative [...] Read more.
Internal combustion engines have been a major contributor to air pollution. Replacing these engines with electric propulsion systems presents significant challenges due to different countries’ needs and limitations. An active, purely mechanical solution to the problem of irregular torque production in an alternative internal combustion engine is proposed. This solution uses an actuator built on a camshaft and a spring, which stores and returns energy during the engine operating cycle, allowing torque production to be normalized, avoiding heavy flywheels. Designed for control throughout the engine’s duty cycle, this system incorporates a cam profile and a spring mechanism. The spring captures energy during the expansion stroke, which is then released to the engine during the intake and compression strokes. Simple, lightweight, and efficient, this system ensures smoother and more consistent engine operations. It presents a viable alternative to the heavy and problematic dual-mass flywheels that were introduced in the 1980s and are still in use. This innovative approach could significantly enhance the performance and reliability of alternative internal combustion engines without notable energy losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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19 pages, 9872 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Deployable Cylindrical Space Bar Structures of Reciprocal Linkages with Frustoconical Ends
by Juan Pérez-Valcárcel, Manuel Muñoz-Vidal, Isaac R. López-César, Manuel J. Freire-Tellado and Félix Suárez-Riestra
Designs 2024, 8(3), 46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030046 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 472
Abstract
In this article, deployable cylindrical vaults of reciprocal linkages with frustoconical ends are analysed. Deployable cylindrical vaults with quadrangular scissors modules have low stiffness in the longitudinal direction, which requires the use of stiffening bars after deployment. The truncated cone-shaped ends improve their [...] Read more.
In this article, deployable cylindrical vaults of reciprocal linkages with frustoconical ends are analysed. Deployable cylindrical vaults with quadrangular scissors modules have low stiffness in the longitudinal direction, which requires the use of stiffening bars after deployment. The truncated cone-shaped ends improve their stiffness but do not prevent bracing. However, if reciprocal knots are used, the mesh performance improves considerably. This article studies the design conditions of these vaults and their resistance to gravity, wind suction and wind loads in the transverse and longitudinal directions. We also study the different resistance behaviour of the mesh, depending on whether the roof is supported on the upper or lower joints. In all cases, model tests are carried out to check the validity of the proposed solutions. Both theoretical calculations and experimental tests demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of this type of structure. Full article
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20 pages, 8159 KiB  
Article
Towards a Sustainable Laser Powder Bed Fusion Process via the Characterisation of Additively Manufactured Nitinol Parts
by Muhannad Ahmed Obeidi, Paul Healy, Hasan Alobaidi, Declan Bourke and Dermot Brabazon
Designs 2024, 8(3), 45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030045 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 904
Abstract
Is additive manufacturing (AM) a sustainable process? Can the process be optimised to produce sustainable AM parts and production techniques? Additive manufacturing offers the production of parts made of different types of materials in addition to the complex geometry that is difficult or [...] Read more.
Is additive manufacturing (AM) a sustainable process? Can the process be optimised to produce sustainable AM parts and production techniques? Additive manufacturing offers the production of parts made of different types of materials in addition to the complex geometry that is difficult or impossible to produce by using the traditional subtractive methods. This study is focused on the optimisation of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF), one of the most common technologies used in additive manufacturing and 3D printing. This research was carried out by modulating the build layer thickness of the deposited metal powder and the input volumetric energy density. The aim of the proposed strategy is to save the build time by maximizing the applied layer thickness of nitinol powder while retrieving the different AM part properties. The saving in the process time has a direct effect on the total cost of the produced part as a result of several components like electric energy, inert gas consumption, and labour. Nickel-rich nitinol (52.39 Ni at.%) was selected for investigation in this study due to its extremely high superplastic and shape memory properties in addition to the wide application in various industries like aerospace, biomedical, and automotive. The results obtained show that significant energy and material consumption can be found by producing near full dens AM parts with limited or no alteration in chemical and mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering Design)
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19 pages, 13288 KiB  
Article
Monitoring the Center of Gravity of a Vehicle Seat to Detect the Occupant Position
by Alberto Vergnano, Claudio Giorgianni and Francesco Leali
Designs 2024, 8(3), 44; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030044 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 818
Abstract
Deploying an airbag when a vehicle occupant is too close to it can cause injury. An adaptive Airbag Control Unit (ACU) would improve the effectiveness of the safety system, provided it is aware of the actual position of the occupants once the crash [...] Read more.
Deploying an airbag when a vehicle occupant is too close to it can cause injury. An adaptive Airbag Control Unit (ACU) would improve the effectiveness of the safety system, provided it is aware of the actual position of the occupants once the crash is going to occur. Occupants can be monitored with vision-based and radar-based sensing in the vehicle, but the research question is whether other reliable devices exist. In this research, a real seat is equipped with four sensors in the supports from the floor, as well as an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a microcontroller. The device is capable of identifying correct position or different Out of Position (OP) conditions and inform an adaptive ACU. The paper presents the seat layout in detail and its testing in extensive driving experiments with multiple participants. Depending on the position of the driver, the identification is correct 45–100% of the time. Monitoring the occupant position by a sensorized seat is feasible and can improve the reliability of the onboard safety system when integrated with other occupant monitoring devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vehicle Engineering Design)
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22 pages, 5457 KiB  
Article
Designing Home Automation Routines Using an LLM-Based Chatbot
by Mathyas Giudici, Luca Padalino, Giovanni Paolino, Ilaria Paratici, Alexandru Ionut Pascu and Franca Garzotto
Designs 2024, 8(3), 43; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030043 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 696
Abstract
Without any more delay, individuals are urged to adopt more sustainable behaviors to fight climate change. New digital systems mixed with engaging and gamification mechanisms could play an important role in achieving such an objective. In particular, Conversational Agents, like Smart Home Assistants, [...] Read more.
Without any more delay, individuals are urged to adopt more sustainable behaviors to fight climate change. New digital systems mixed with engaging and gamification mechanisms could play an important role in achieving such an objective. In particular, Conversational Agents, like Smart Home Assistants, are a promising tool that encourage sustainable behaviors within household settings. In recent years, large language models (LLMs) have shown great potential in enhancing the capabilities of such assistants, making them more effective in interacting with users. We present the design and implementation of GreenIFTTT, an application empowered by GPT4 to create and control home automation routines. The agent helps users understand which energy consumption optimization routines could be created and applied to make their home appliances more environmentally sustainable. We performed an exploratory study (Italy, December 2023) with N = 13 participants to test our application’s usability and UX. The results suggest that GreenIFTTT is a usable, engaging, easy, and supportive tool, providing insight into new perspectives and usage of LLMs to create more environmentally sustainable home automation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Home Design, 2nd Edition)
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11 pages, 3138 KiB  
Article
A Current Design Approach for Ming Chairs
by Yifan Bai, Khairul Manami Kamarudin and Hassan Alli
Designs 2024, 8(3), 42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030042 - 8 May 2024
Viewed by 639
Abstract
Ergonomics are key in the design and application of Ming-style chairs. However, there are presently few specific design frameworks to guide Ming-style chair design. Under this background, the present study developed a questionnaire on the ergonomic design of Ming-style chairs and assessed its [...] Read more.
Ergonomics are key in the design and application of Ming-style chairs. However, there are presently few specific design frameworks to guide Ming-style chair design. Under this background, the present study developed a questionnaire on the ergonomic design of Ming-style chairs and assessed its validity and reliability. Fifty-two respondents involved in the design and manufacture of Ming-style chairs participated in this study. The statistics of the questionnaire were analyzed and yielded a significant reliability coefficient (α > 0.70, p < 0.01). This ergonomic design framework study of Ming-style chairs analyzed the domains of Chair Form, Aesthetics, Safety, Comfort, Ease-of-use, and Productivity. To assess the importance of various design elements, we used a five-point Likert scale to score items within each domain. This scoring system enabled us to prioritize features, allowing the designers to focus on the essential elements before beginning the design process. We found that designers and manufacturers focused primarily on the Four-headed Official Chair with Armrests form. Full article
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13 pages, 13613 KiB  
Article
A Simplified Design Method for the Mechanical Stability of Slit-Shaped Additively Manufactured Reactor Modules
by David F. Metzger, Christoph Klahn and Roland Dittmeyer
Designs 2024, 8(3), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030041 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 573
Abstract
Equipment integrity is an essential aspect of process engineering. Design guidelines facilitate the design and production of safe-to-operate and economic devices. Thin-walled, slit-shaped modules form a subgroup of process engineering devices made via additive manufacturing (AM). Being subject to internal pressure, they have [...] Read more.
Equipment integrity is an essential aspect of process engineering. Design guidelines facilitate the design and production of safe-to-operate and economic devices. Thin-walled, slit-shaped modules form a subgroup of process engineering devices made via additive manufacturing (AM). Being subject to internal pressure, they have lacked design guidelines until now. We derived a user-centered calculation model for such modules with regular internal structures. It was validated with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and practical pressure tests for which the modules were manufactured additively. The performance of the calculation could be confirmed, and a design graph was derived. Slit-shaped modules with appropriate internal structures can withstand high pressure at a minimum wall thickness, and they are efficiently fabricated. These structures, being pins, fins, lattice, or heat transfer enhancing fluid-guiding elements (FGEs), occupied approximately 10% of the modules’ internal volume. Full article
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26 pages, 6315 KiB  
Article
Scalable Compositional Digital Twin-Based Monitoring System for Production Management: Design and Development in an Experimental Open-Pit Mine
by Nabil El Bazi, Oussama Laayati, Nouhaila Darkaoui, Adila El Maghraoui, Nasr Guennouni, Ahmed Chebak and Mustapha Mabrouki
Designs 2024, 8(3), 40; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030040 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 1264
Abstract
While digital twins (DTs) have recently gained prominence as a viable option for creating reliable asset representations, many existing frameworks and architectures in the literature involve the integration of different technologies and paradigms, including the Internet of Things (IoTs), data modeling, and machine [...] Read more.
While digital twins (DTs) have recently gained prominence as a viable option for creating reliable asset representations, many existing frameworks and architectures in the literature involve the integration of different technologies and paradigms, including the Internet of Things (IoTs), data modeling, and machine learning (ML). This complexity requires the orchestration of these different technologies, often resulting in subsystems and composition frameworks that are difficult to seamlessly align. In this paper, we present a scalable compositional framework designed for the development of a DT-based production management system (PMS) with advanced production monitoring capabilities. The conducted approach used to design the compositional framework utilizes the Factory Design and Improvement (FDI) methodology. Furthermore, the validation of our proposed framework is illustrated through a case study conducted in a phosphate screening station within the context of the mining industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mixture of Human and Machine Intelligence in Digital Manufacturing)
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15 pages, 2366 KiB  
Article
Computational Fluid Dynamics Heat Transfer Analysis of Double Pipe Heat Exchanger and Flow Characteristics Using Nanofluid TiO2 with Water
by Abdulaziz S. Alhulaifi
Designs 2024, 8(3), 39; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030039 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 803
Abstract
A device called a heat exchanger is used to exchange heat transfer between two fluids with different temperatures. Because of its durability and ability to handle high-pressure application, the concentric double pipe heat exchangers are widely utilized for numerous industrial applications. To conserve [...] Read more.
A device called a heat exchanger is used to exchange heat transfer between two fluids with different temperatures. Because of its durability and ability to handle high-pressure application, the concentric double pipe heat exchangers are widely utilized for numerous industrial applications. To conserve pumping power energy, many researchers were involved in study of the nanoparticles to be embedded in the fluid, which will enrich the fluid thermal conductivity and surface area. This article demonstrates the flow characteristics and convective heat transfer of nanofluids containing 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 of vol% TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in water under turbulent conditions, which mainly can be used for cooling nuclear reactors applications. Reynolds numbers varying from 4000 to 18,000 are examined numerically. The convective heat transfer coefficient results of the nanofluid agree well against experimental data, which are slightly more than that of base water at 1.94%. The results of the numerical model showed that the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids will increase when the Reynolds and volume fraction increases. By increasing the temperature of the annular hot water, the heat transfer rate will increase, showing no major impact to the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids. A generalised solution predicting the convective heat transfer coefficient for extensive nanoparticle materials is proposed. The conclusion of the empirical equation is tested among published data and the results are highly congruent, confirming the strength of the gamma equation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Thermal Energy Transfer and Storage)
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14 pages, 2081 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Utilizing Waste Sunflower Oil as a Biodiesel Blend on Four-Stroke Engine Performance and Emissions
by Qais Hussein Hassan, Alaa Salahuddin Araibi, Akram Hatem Shather, Malik Mustafa Mohammed and Hayder Abdulkhaleq Alalwan
Designs 2024, 8(3), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/designs8030038 - 27 Apr 2024
Viewed by 849
Abstract
The blending of biodiesel with petroleum diesel attracts much attention due to its high potential in reducing emissions. In this work, waste sunflower oil was converted to biodiesel by the trans-esterification method, and it was blended with petroleum diesel in three ratios (10, [...] Read more.
The blending of biodiesel with petroleum diesel attracts much attention due to its high potential in reducing emissions. In this work, waste sunflower oil was converted to biodiesel by the trans-esterification method, and it was blended with petroleum diesel in three ratios (10, 30, and 50%). The impact of using these blended fuels in a four-stroke engine on engine performance and exhaust emissions at three engine loads (2, 4, and 6 N.m) was investigated and compared with the use of petroleum diesel and biodiesel. The engine performance was evaluated by determining the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC), engine effective power (Ne), brake-specific energy consumption (BSEC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), and noise intensity. The evaluation of emissions from the engine exhaust was carried out by measuring the levels of carbon oxides (CO and CO2), hydrocarbons (HC), nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), and particulate matter (PM). The results show that blending diesel with up to 30% biodiesel can reduce CO, HC, and PM emissions by 29.6 ± 1%, 26.0 ± 4%, and 31.0 ± 3%, respectively. However, this decrease is associated with increasing CO2 and NOx emissions by 18.5 ± 2.5% and 29.0 ± 6%, respectively. In addition, the engine showed acceptable performance when using up to 30% biodiesel, where the increase in fuel consumption was limited to 5.8 ± 0.3%. In addition, the engine’s effective power increased with the blending ratio of 10% by 2.0 ± 0.6%, but then decreased with the blending ratio of 30% by only 2.0 ± 0.6%. The noise intensity was also decreased by 2.4%, while BSEC and BTE were reduced by only 2.9 ± 0.9% and 3.5 ± 1%, respectively. The results of this work provide deep insights regarding the utilization of waste sunflower oil as biodiesel to be blended with petroleum diesel, which is a considerable novel approach in the energy and environmental sectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Vehicle Engineering Design)
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