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Experimental Attempt on Walking Behavior and Stress Assessment in a Completely Darkened Tunnel

1
Graduate School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Transdisciplinary Science and Engineering Program, Hiroshima University, 1-5-1, Higashi-Hiroshima, Kagamiyama 739-8529, Japan
2
Faculty of Production Systems Engineering and Sciences, Komatsu University, 1-3 Nu, Shicho-Machi, Komatsu 923-8511, Japan
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Ishikawa College, Tsubata 929-0392, Japan
4
Research Center for Child Mental Development, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takaramachi, Kanazawa 920-8641, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Johann Sturm
Received: 24 March 2021 / Revised: 9 May 2021 / Accepted: 10 May 2021 / Published: 13 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology)
In case of massive fire incidents in tunnels, ceiling lights are covered by dense smoke, and pedestrians must evacuate in the dark tunnel with almost zero visibility. Nonetheless, the walking behavior in a completely darkened tunnel has not been clarified. In this study, we experimentally attempted to investigate the evacuation loci and assess the stress of evacuees by measuring oxytocin and cortisol concentrations in saliva, heart rates, blood pressures, and responses in a survey questionnaire for a full-scale tunnel. Results indicated few differences in both one- and two-dimensional walking speed. In terms of stress, the group of subjects who felt stress demonstrated a walking speed that is 0.17 m/s slower than the group that did not feel it. In the questionnaire survey, most of the subjects answered that the wall was the most helpful item, followed by the unevenness (bumps) on the white lines on the road. One of the subjects became lost, stating that she could not find the unevenness (bumps) on the white lines. These two factors can be rational guides in a dense smoke environment or a completely dark tunnel scenario. View Full-Text
Keywords: tunnel; fire; smoke; evacuation; stress assessment; human behavior; risk analysis tunnel; fire; smoke; evacuation; stress assessment; human behavior; risk analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Seike, M.; Kawabata, N.; Hasegawa, M.; Tsuji, C.; Higashida, H.; Yuhi, T. Experimental Attempt on Walking Behavior and Stress Assessment in a Completely Darkened Tunnel. Infrastructures 2021, 6, 75. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6050075

AMA Style

Seike M, Kawabata N, Hasegawa M, Tsuji C, Higashida H, Yuhi T. Experimental Attempt on Walking Behavior and Stress Assessment in a Completely Darkened Tunnel. Infrastructures. 2021; 6(5):75. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6050075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Seike, Miho, Nobuyoshi Kawabata, Masato Hasegawa, Chiharu Tsuji, Haruhiro Higashida, and Teruko Yuhi. 2021. "Experimental Attempt on Walking Behavior and Stress Assessment in a Completely Darkened Tunnel" Infrastructures 6, no. 5: 75. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/infrastructures6050075

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