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Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to Assess Liveability in Slum Upgrading Schemes: Case of Pune, India

1
DLGS—Dresden Leibniz Graduate School, IOER—Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development, 01217 Dresden, Germany
2
UFZ—Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Urban and Environmental Sociology, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Matheos Santamouris
Received: 20 March 2021 / Revised: 21 May 2021 / Accepted: 22 May 2021 / Published: 26 May 2021
Liveability assessments of informal urban settlements are scarce. In India, a number of slum upgrading schemes have been implemented over the last decades aiming at better living conditions. However, these schemes rarely consider improvement in liveability as an explicit criterion, assuming that better physical conditions and the provision of basic services inevitably lead to better liveability. We use Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to analyse liveability in four different informal settlements in Pune (India). We compare the liveability by conducting semi-structured interviews with residents and by analysing them in individual and aggregated FCMs. Each settlement represents an archetypical form of the upgradation process: non-upgraded (base case), in-situ upgraded, relocated, and temporary resettlement. The FCMs show that the liveability indicators availability of community space, proximity to public transportation, feeling of belonging, and good relationship with neighbours and community are central elements of these neighbourhoods’ liveability. The results suggest that upgradation may lead to an improved overall liveability but can also reduce it if not designed properly. The fostering of community agency, an integration of the neighbourhood into the formal city fabric, and the maintaining of cohesion during the shift from horizontal to vertical living emerged as critical factors. To ensure sustainable integration of liveability considerations in slum upgrading schemes, we suggest using indicators well-adapted to the local context, co-created with local experts and stakeholders, as well as periodic post-occupancy liveability evaluations. View Full-Text
Keywords: liveability; informal settlements; slums; slum upgrading; fuzzy cognitive maps; post-occupancy evaluations liveability; informal settlements; slums; slum upgrading; fuzzy cognitive maps; post-occupancy evaluations
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nath, S.; Karutz, R. Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to Assess Liveability in Slum Upgrading Schemes: Case of Pune, India. Urban Sci. 2021, 5, 44. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci5020044

AMA Style

Nath S, Karutz R. Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to Assess Liveability in Slum Upgrading Schemes: Case of Pune, India. Urban Science. 2021; 5(2):44. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci5020044

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nath, Subhashree, and Raphael Karutz. 2021. "Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to Assess Liveability in Slum Upgrading Schemes: Case of Pune, India" Urban Science 5, no. 2: 44. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/urbansci5020044

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