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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 8, Issue 2 (April 2024) – 42 articles

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48 pages, 20936 KiB  
Review
A Review on Wire-Laser Directed Energy Deposition: Parameter Control, Process Stability, and Future Research Paths
by Nahal Ghanadi and Somayeh Pasebani
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 84; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020084 - 20 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1888
Abstract
Wire-laser directed energy deposition has emerged as a transformative technology in metal additive manufacturing, offering high material deposition efficiency and promoting a cleaner process environment compared to powder processes. This technique has gained attention across diverse industries due to its ability to expedite [...] Read more.
Wire-laser directed energy deposition has emerged as a transformative technology in metal additive manufacturing, offering high material deposition efficiency and promoting a cleaner process environment compared to powder processes. This technique has gained attention across diverse industries due to its ability to expedite production and facilitate the repair or replication of valuable components. This work reviews the state-of-the-art in wire-laser directed energy deposition to gain a clear understanding of key process variables and identify challenges affecting process stability. Furthermore, this paper explores modeling and monitoring methods utilized in the literature to enhance the final quality of fabricated parts, thereby minimizing the need for repeated experiments, and reducing material waste. By reviewing existing literature, this paper contributes to advancing the current understanding of wire-laser directed energy deposition technology. It highlights the gaps in the literature while underscoring research needs in wire-laser directed energy deposition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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30 pages, 18441 KiB  
Article
Role of Li and Sc Additions and Machining Conditions on Cutting Forces on Milling Behavior of A7075-Based Alloys
by Ali Tahmasbi, Jean Brice Mandatsy Moungomo, Agnes M. Samuel, Yasser Zedan, Victor Songmene and Fawzy H. Samuel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020083 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 945
Abstract
The present study focuses on the dry and wet end milling of three distinct Aluminum 7075 alloys: A7075, A7075–Sc (with a 0.18% Sc addition), and A7075–Li–Sc (containing 2.2% Li and 0.18% Sc additions). The main objective is to explore how cutting parameters (cutting [...] Read more.
The present study focuses on the dry and wet end milling of three distinct Aluminum 7075 alloys: A7075, A7075–Sc (with a 0.18% Sc addition), and A7075–Li–Sc (containing 2.2% Li and 0.18% Sc additions). The main objective is to explore how cutting parameters (cutting speed and feed rate), heat treatment, alloy composition, and cooling methods influence A lcutting force. In the initial phase of the investigation, all three alloys underwent heat treatment. Subsequently, the machining process centered on the softest and hardest conditions, aiming at analyzing the impact of hardness on machinability behavior of the three studied alloys, using the same milling tool and a consistent depth of cut under both dry and wet conditions. The investigations also highlight the role of Li and Sc additions on the quality of surface finish, as well as burr and chip formation. In total, a sum of 108 operations have been performed on the present alloys. Full article
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13 pages, 7141 KiB  
Article
Selection of Welding Conditions for Achieving Both a High Efficiency and Low Heat Input for Hot-Wire Gas Metal Arc Welding
by Keita Marumoto, Akira Fujinaga, Takeshi Takahashi, Hikaru Yamamoto and Motomichi Yamamoto
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 82; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020082 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 776
Abstract
This study presents a new gas metal arc welding (GMAW) technique that achieves both high efficiency and low heat input using a hybridization of the hot-wire method. The optimal combination of welding speed and welding current conditions was investigated using a fixed hot-wire [...] Read more.
This study presents a new gas metal arc welding (GMAW) technique that achieves both high efficiency and low heat input using a hybridization of the hot-wire method. The optimal combination of welding speed and welding current conditions was investigated using a fixed hot-wire feeding speed of 10 m/min on a butt joint with a V-shaped groove using 19 mm thick steel plates. Molten pool stability and defect formation were observed using high-speed imaging and cross-sectional observations. The power consumption and heat input were predicted prior to welding and measured in the experiments. The results indicate that a combination of a welding current of 350–500 A and welding speed of 0.3–0.7 m/min is optimal to avoid defect formation and molten metal precedence using three or four passes. The higher efficiency and lower heat input achieved by hot-wire GMAW results in a weld metal of adequate hardness, narrower heat-affected zone, smaller grain size at the fusion boundary, and lower power consumption than those obtained using tandem GMAW and high-current GMAW. Based on the experimental results, a single bevel groove, which is widely used in construction machinery welding joints, was welded using hot-wire GMAW, and we confirmed that the welding part could be welded in six passes, whereas eight passes were required with GMAW only. Full article
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19 pages, 15081 KiB  
Article
Production of Permanent Magnets from Recycled NdFeB Powder with Powder Extrusion Moulding
by Stefan Rathfelder, Stephan Schuschnigg, Christian Kukla, Clemens Holzer and Carlo Burkhardt
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020081 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 2186
Abstract
In the last fifteen years, several groups have investigated metal injection moulding (MIM) of NdFeB powder to produce isotropic or anisotropic rare earth magnets of greater geometric complexity than that achieved by the conventional pressing and sintering approach. However, due to the powder’s [...] Read more.
In the last fifteen years, several groups have investigated metal injection moulding (MIM) of NdFeB powder to produce isotropic or anisotropic rare earth magnets of greater geometric complexity than that achieved by the conventional pressing and sintering approach. However, due to the powder’s high affinity for oxygen and carbon uptake, sufficient remanence and coercivity remains difficult. This article presents a novel approach to producing NdFeB magnets from recycled material using Powder Extrusion Moulding (PEM) in a continuous process. The process route uses powder obtained from recycling rare earth magnets through Hydrogen Processing of Magnetic Scrap (HPMS). This article presents the results of tailored powder processing, the production of mouldable feedstock based on a special binder system, and moulding with PEM to produce green and sintered parts. The magnetic properties and microstructures of debinded and sintered samples are presented and discussed, focusing on the influence of filling ratio and challenging processing conditions on interstitial content as well as density and magnetic properties. Full article
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16 pages, 4440 KiB  
Article
Droplet Formation and Energy Input during Induction Wire Melting with Pulsed and Constant Generator Power
by Jonas Kimme, Jonas Gruner, André Hälsig and Jonas Hensel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 80; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020080 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 799
Abstract
Induction heating is a fast, reproducible, and efficient heating method used in various manufacturing processes. However, there is no established additive manufacturing (AM) process based on induction heating using wire as feedstock. This study investigates a novel approach to AM based on inductive [...] Read more.
Induction heating is a fast, reproducible, and efficient heating method used in various manufacturing processes. However, there is no established additive manufacturing (AM) process based on induction heating using wire as feedstock. This study investigates a novel approach to AM based on inductive heating, where a steel wire is melted and droplets are detached periodically using a two-winding induction coil. The process parameters and energy input into the droplets are characterized. The induction generator exhibits a sluggish response to the excitation voltage, resulting in a lag in the coil current. The process is captured using a high-speed camera, revealing a regular droplet formation of 14 Hz and uniform shapes and sizes between 2.11 and 2.65 mm in diameter when operated within an appropriate process window. Larger drops and increased spatter formation occur outside this window. The proposed method allows for the production of droplets with almost spherical shapes. Further analysis and characterization of droplet formation and energy input provide insights into process optimization and indicate an overall efficiency of approximately 10%. Full article
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23 pages, 2096 KiB  
Review
Soft Robot Design, Manufacturing, and Operation Challenges: A Review
by Getachew Ambaye, Enkhsaikhan Boldsaikhan and Krishna Krishnan
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 79; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020079 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Advancements in smart manufacturing have embraced the adoption of soft robots for improved productivity, flexibility, and automation as well as safety in smart factories. Hence, soft robotics is seeing a significant surge in popularity by garnering considerable attention from researchers and practitioners. Bionic [...] Read more.
Advancements in smart manufacturing have embraced the adoption of soft robots for improved productivity, flexibility, and automation as well as safety in smart factories. Hence, soft robotics is seeing a significant surge in popularity by garnering considerable attention from researchers and practitioners. Bionic soft robots, which are composed of compliant materials like silicones, offer compelling solutions to manipulating delicate objects, operating in unstructured environments, and facilitating safe human–robot interactions. However, despite their numerous advantages, there are some fundamental challenges to overcome, which particularly concern motion precision and stiffness compliance in performing physical tasks that involve external forces. In this regard, enhancing the operation performance of soft robots necessitates intricate, complex structural designs, compliant multifunctional materials, and proper manufacturing methods. The objective of this literature review is to chronicle a comprehensive overview of soft robot design, manufacturing, and operation challenges in conjunction with recent advancements and future research directions for addressing these technical challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Manufacturing in the Era of Industry 4.0)
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27 pages, 6236 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Distortion Analysis of a Laser Direct Metal Deposition (DMD)-Manufactured Large Prototype Made of Soft Martensitic Steel 1.4313
by Indira Dey, Raphael Floeder, Rick Solcà, Timo Schudeleit and Konrad Wegener
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 78; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020078 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 845
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) by using direct metal deposition (DMD) often causes erratic distortion patterns, especially on large parts. This study presents a systematic distortion analysis by employing numerical approaches using transient–thermal and structural simulations, experimental approaches using tomography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and an [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) by using direct metal deposition (DMD) often causes erratic distortion patterns, especially on large parts. This study presents a systematic distortion analysis by employing numerical approaches using transient–thermal and structural simulations, experimental approaches using tomography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and an analytical approach calculating the buckling distortion of a piston. The most essential geometrical features are thin walls situated between massive rings. An eigenvalue buckling analysis, a DMD process, and heat treatment simulation are presented. The eigenvalue buckling simulation shows that it is highly dependent on the mesh size. The computational effort of the DMD and heat treatment simulation was reduced through simplifications. Moreover, artificial imperfections were imposed in the heat treatment simulation, which moved the part into the buckling state inspired by the experiment. Although the numerical results of both simulations are successful, the eigenvalue and DMD simulation cannot be validated through tomography and XRD. This is because tomography is unable to measure small elastic strain fields, the simulated residual stresses were overestimated, and the part removal disturbed the residual stress equilibrium. Nevertheless, the heat treatment simulation can predict the distortion pattern caused by an inhomogeneous temperature field during ambient cooling in an oven. The massive piston skirt cools down and shrinks faster than the massive core. The reduced yield strength at elevated temperatures and critical buckling load leads to plastic deformation of the thin walls. Full article
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17 pages, 4484 KiB  
Article
Interrelations between Printing Patterns and Residual Stress in Fused Deposition Modelling for the 4D Printing of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene and Wood–Plastic Composites
by Yerong Huang, Sandra Löschke, Yixiang Gan and Gwénaëlle Proust
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 77; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020077 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
Four dimensional printing enables the advanced manufacturing of smart objects that can morph and adapt shape over time in response to stimuli such as heat. This study presents a single-material 4D printing workflow which explores the residual stress and anisotropy arising from the [...] Read more.
Four dimensional printing enables the advanced manufacturing of smart objects that can morph and adapt shape over time in response to stimuli such as heat. This study presents a single-material 4D printing workflow which explores the residual stress and anisotropy arising from the fused deposition modelling (FDM) printing process to create heat-triggered self-morphing objects. In particular, the study first investigates the effect of printing patterns on the residual stress of FDM-printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) products. Through finite element analysis, the raster angle of printing patterns was identified as the key parameter influencing the distribution of residual stresses. Experimental investigations further reveal that the non-uniform distribution of residual stress results in the anisotropic thermal deformation of printed materials. Thus, through the design of printing patterns, FDM-printed materials can be programmed with desired built-in residual stresses and anisotropic behaviours for initiating and controlling the transformation of 4D-printed objects. Using the proposed approach, any desktop FDM printers can be turned into 4D printers to create smart objects that can self-morph into target geometries. A series of 4D printing prototypes manufactured from conventional ABS 3D printing feedstock are tested to illustrate the use and reliability of this new workflow. Additionally, the custom-made wood–plastic composite (WPC) feedstocks are explored in this study to demonstrate the transposability of the 4D printing approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Manufacturing Process Development of Advanced Composite Materials)
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20 pages, 305 KiB  
Review
Computer-Aided Optimisation in Additive Manufacturing Processes: A State of the Art Survey
by Tanja Emilie Henriksen, Tanita Fossli Brustad, Rune Dalmo and Aleksander Pedersen
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 76; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020076 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a field with both industrial and academic significance. Computer-aided optimisation has brought advances to this field over the years, but challenges and areas of improvement still remain. Design to execution inaccuracies, void formation, material anisotropy, and surface quality are [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a field with both industrial and academic significance. Computer-aided optimisation has brought advances to this field over the years, but challenges and areas of improvement still remain. Design to execution inaccuracies, void formation, material anisotropy, and surface quality are examples of remaining challenges. These challenges can be improved via some of the trending optimisation topics, such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML); STL correction, replacement, or removal; slicing algorithms; and simulations. This paper reviews AM and its history with a special focus on the printing process and how it can be optimised using computer software. The most important new contribution is a survey of the present challenges connected with the prevailing optimisation topics. This can be seen as a foundation for future research. In addition, we suggest how certain challenges can be improved and show how such changes affect the printing process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Processes and Materials for Additive Manufacturing)
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12 pages, 6974 KiB  
Article
Rolling Eccentric Steel Rings on an Industrial Radial–Axial Ring Rolling Mill
by Mirko Gröper, Marten Quadfasel, David Bailly and Gerhard Hirt
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 75; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020075 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 926
Abstract
Various industries, including mechanical engineering, utilize steel rings featuring variable cross-sectional profiles, such as eccentric rings. Presently employed methods for producing eccentric rings possess drawbacks like restricted geometries, significant material wastage or uneven microstructures. The radial–axial ring rolling process serves to create seamless [...] Read more.
Various industries, including mechanical engineering, utilize steel rings featuring variable cross-sectional profiles, such as eccentric rings. Presently employed methods for producing eccentric rings possess drawbacks like restricted geometries, significant material wastage or uneven microstructures. The radial–axial ring rolling process serves to create seamless rolled steel rings with near-net-shaped cross-sections. A novel technique involves achieving eccentricity by dynamically adjusting the mandrel’s position during the ring rolling process. This method’s fundamental feasibility has previously been showcased using a blend of oil clay and a labor test bench. Transferring the possibility of manufacturing eccentric rings on industrial radial–axial ring rolling mills would expand the product range of ring manufacturers without encountering drawbacks associated with existing manufacturing processes. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the basic feasibility of the concept of an industrial radial–axial ring rolling mill. In the first step, FEA simulation studies were carried out to develop the rolling strategy and estimate the achievable eccentricity on the institute’s radial–axial ring mill. Subsequently, the rolling strategy was implemented on an industrial ring rolling mill with the help of a unique technology module programmed in C++. Finally, an eccentric ring was ring rolled and compared with the FEA simulation, and the reproducibility was demonstrated to be successful. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems, 2nd Volume)
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22 pages, 7671 KiB  
Article
Influence of the Hot-Top Thermal Regime on the Severity and Extent of Macrosegregation in Large-Size Steel Ingots
by Neda Ghodrati, Henri Champliaud, Jean-Benoit Morin and Mohammad Jahazi
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020074 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 898
Abstract
The influence of hot-top designs with different heat capacities on the distribution of positive and negative macrosegregation was investigated on a 12 metric tonne (MT) cast ingot made using Cr-Mo low-alloy steel. The three-dimensional finite element modeling code THERCAST® was used to [...] Read more.
The influence of hot-top designs with different heat capacities on the distribution of positive and negative macrosegregation was investigated on a 12 metric tonne (MT) cast ingot made using Cr-Mo low-alloy steel. The three-dimensional finite element modeling code THERCAST® was used to simulate the thermo-mechanical phenomena associated with the solidification process, running from filling the mold until complete solidification. The model was validated on an industrial-scale ingot and then utilized to evaluate the influence of the thermal history of the hot-top, a crucial component in the cast ingot setup. This assessment aimed to comprehend changes in solidification time, temperature, and heat flux—all of which contribute to the determination of macrosegregation severity. The results showed that preheating the hot-top had a minor effect on solidification time, while modifications of thermal conductivity in the hot-top region increased the solidification time by 31%, thereby significantly affecting the macrosegregation patterns. The results are discussed and interpreted in terms of the fundamental mechanisms governing the kinetics of solidification and macrosegregation phenomena. Full article
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16 pages, 3800 KiB  
Article
Theoretical-Numerical Investigation of a New Approach to Reconstruct the Temperature Field in PBF-LB/M Using Multispectral Process Monitoring
by Lisa May and Martin Werz
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 73; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020073 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1068
Abstract
The monitoring of additive manufacturing processes such as powder bed fusion enables the detection of several process quantities important to the quality of the built part. In this context, radiation-based monitoring techniques have been used to obtain information about the melt pool and [...] Read more.
The monitoring of additive manufacturing processes such as powder bed fusion enables the detection of several process quantities important to the quality of the built part. In this context, radiation-based monitoring techniques have been used to obtain information about the melt pool and the general temperature distribution on the surface of the powder bed. High temporal and spatial resolution have been achieved at the cost of large storage requirements. This contribution aims to offer an alternative strategy of gaining information about the powder bed’s temperature field with sufficient resolution but with an economical amount of data. The investigated measurement setup uses a spectrometer to detect the spectral radiation intensities emitted by an area enclosing the melt pool and part of its surroundings. An analytical description of this process is presented, which shows that the measured spectral entities can be reconstructed by the Ritz method. It is also shown that the corresponding weighting factors can be physically interpreted as subdomains of constant temperature within the measurement area. Two different test cases are numerically analyzed, showing that the methodology allows for an approximation of the melt pool size while further assumptions remain necessary to reconstruct the actual temperature distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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24 pages, 39872 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Deposition Parameters for Near-Beta Alloy Ti-55511 Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition
by Addison J. Rayner, Greg A. W. Sweet, Owen Craig, Mahdi Habibnejad-Korayem and Paul Bishop
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020072 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 870
Abstract
The directed energy deposition (DED) parameters were determined for near-β alloy Ti-55511 by employing statistical design of experiments (DOEs) methods. Parameters resulting in fully dense freeform deposits were identified using two sequential DOEs. Single laser tracks were printed with several laser power, traverse [...] Read more.
The directed energy deposition (DED) parameters were determined for near-β alloy Ti-55511 by employing statistical design of experiments (DOEs) methods. Parameters resulting in fully dense freeform deposits were identified using two sequential DOEs. Single laser tracks were printed with several laser power, traverse rate, and powder feed rate settings in an initial DOE to identify promising build parameters. The capture efficiency and effective deposition rate were used to characterize and rank the single track deposits. The best parameters were then used to print a solid cube with various X–Y and Z overlaps (different hatch spacing, HS, and layer thickness, ZS) in a second DOE. Suitable deposition parameters were selected based on the cube density and microstructure and were used to fabricate larger tensile samples for mechanical testing. Multiple parameter sets were found to provide dense Ti-55511 deposits with acceptable mechanical properties and the parametric models showed statistical significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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18 pages, 5617 KiB  
Article
Particle Size Effect on Powder Packing Properties and Molten Pool Dimensions in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Simulation
by Jun Katagiri, Sukeharu Nomoto, Masahiro Kusano and Makoto Watanabe
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020071 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Various defects are produced during the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process, which can affect the quality of the fabricated part. Previous studies have revealed that the defects formed are correlated with molten pool dimensions. Powder particles are thinly spread on a substrate [...] Read more.
Various defects are produced during the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process, which can affect the quality of the fabricated part. Previous studies have revealed that the defects formed are correlated with molten pool dimensions. Powder particles are thinly spread on a substrate during the L-PBF process; hence, powder packing properties should influence the molten pool dimensions. This study evaluated the influence of particle size on powder packing properties and molten pool dimensions obtained through numerical simulations. Using particles with different average diameters (Dav) of 24, 28, 32, 36, and 40 μm, a series of discrete-element method (DEM) simulations were performed. The packing fraction obtained from DEM simulations became high as Dav became small. Several particles piled up for small Dav, whereas particles spread with almost one-particle diameter thickness for large Dav. Moreover, the packing structure was inhomogeneous and sparse for large Dav. As a result of multiphysics computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations incorporating particles’ positions as initial solid metal volume, the molten pool width obtained was hardly dependent on the Dav and was roughly equivalent to the laser spot size used in the simulations. In contrast, the molten pool depth decreased as Dav decreased. Even if the powder bed thickness is the same, small particles can form a complex packing structure by piling up, resulting in a large specific surface area. This can lead to a complex laser reflection compared to the large particles coated with almost one-particle thickness. The complex reflection absorbs the heat generated by laser irradiation inside the powder bed formed on the substrate. As a result, the depth of the molten pool formed below the substrate is reduced for small particles. Full article
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14 pages, 4286 KiB  
Article
Analytical Model of Quantitative Texture Prediction Considering Heat Transfer Based on Single-Phase Material in Laser Powder Bed Fusion
by Wei Huang, Wenjia Wang, Jinqiang Ning, Hamid Garmestani and Steven Y. Liang
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020070 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is widely used in metal additive manufacturing to create geometrically complex parts, where heat transfer and its affected temperature distribution significantly influence the parts’ materials’ microstructure and the resulting materials’ properties. Among all the microstructure representations, crystallographic orientations [...] Read more.
Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is widely used in metal additive manufacturing to create geometrically complex parts, where heat transfer and its affected temperature distribution significantly influence the parts’ materials’ microstructure and the resulting materials’ properties. Among all the microstructure representations, crystallographic orientations play a paramount role in determining the mechanical properties of materials. This paper first developed a physics-based analytical model to predict the 3D temperature distribution in PBF considering heat transfer boundary conditions; heat input using point-moving heat source solutions; and heat loss due to heat conduction, convection, and radiation. The superposition principle obtained temperature distributions based on linear heat sources and linear heat loss solutions. Then, the temperature distribution was used to analytically obtain the texture grown on a substrate with random grain orientations considering columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET). Thus, the link between process parameters and texture was established through CET models and physical rules. Ti-6Al-4V was selected to demonstrate the capability of the analytical model in a single-phase situation. By applying advanced thermal models, the accuracy of the texture prediction was evaluated based on a comparison of experimental data from the literature and past analytical model results. Hence, this work not only provides a method of the fast analytical simulation of texture prediction in the single-phase mode for metallic materials but also paves the road for subsequent studies on microstructure-affected or texture-affected materials’ properties for both academic research and industrial applications. The prediction of single-phase material texture has never been achieved before, and the scalability has been expanded. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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16 pages, 5999 KiB  
Article
Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) Supply through Internal Cooling Channels in Drilling Processes
by Lukas Schumski, Teresa Tonn, Jens Sölter, Kerstin Avila, Lizoel Buss, Bernhard Karpuschewski and Udo Fritsching
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020069 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technologies possess great potential for improving the sustainability of manufacturing processes, which can reduce the absolute quantity of metalworking fluid (MWF) and also enable near-dry chips that are easier to recycle. During drilling in particular, the MWF is transported [...] Read more.
Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) technologies possess great potential for improving the sustainability of manufacturing processes, which can reduce the absolute quantity of metalworking fluid (MWF) and also enable near-dry chips that are easier to recycle. During drilling in particular, the MWF is transported to the contact zone through internal cooling channels of the drilling tool. The MWF supply and its associated flow behaviour in the transfer from the outlet of the cooling channels to the contact zone have not been sufficiently investigated yet. Great potential is seen in the proper delivery of the MQL into the contact zone. This work aims to visualize and quantify the cooling lubricant supply into the cutting zone using the MQL technique. The visualization of the MQL application is made possible by high-speed shadowgraphic imaging. Detailed image processing is used to evaluate the resulting images. The developed evaluation routine allows for the assessment of the impact of the main process parameters such as the varying pressure of the aerosol generator and the cooling channel diameter. It is found that the oil leaves the cooling channels at the tip of the drill bit in the form of ligaments. An increase in pressure and cooling channel diameter leads to an increase in the frequency of oil ligament separation. Three main flow regimes are identified with different separation frequencies. Low inlet pressures result in intermittently dispersed droplets. The most upper pressure levels lead to an almost continuous dispersion of the oil. At the same time, the air and oil mass flow rates also increase. Full article
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15 pages, 9161 KiB  
Article
Enhancing Tool Performance in High-Speed End Milling of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: The Role of AlCrN PVD Coatings and Resistance to Chipping Wear
by Qianxi He, Victor Saciotto, Jose M. DePaiva, Monica C. Guimaraes, Joern Kohlscheen, Marcelo M. Martins and Stephen C. Veldhuis
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020068 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
The conventional cutting tools used for machining titanium alloys normally experience rapid tool wear, and it is generally difficult to achieve a cutting speed over 60 m/min. In this paper, a comprehensive study on improving the machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is presented, focusing [...] Read more.
The conventional cutting tools used for machining titanium alloys normally experience rapid tool wear, and it is generally difficult to achieve a cutting speed over 60 m/min. In this paper, a comprehensive study on improving the machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy is presented, focusing on high-speed end milling at 100 m/min. Three different AlCrN PVD-coated cemented carbide tools were employed over cemented solid carbide endmills. The study aimed to understand the factors influencing tool performance and, particularly, the uncommon tool wear behavior characterized by chipping on the rake face. The research methodology involves a detailed investigation of coating properties, mechanical characteristics, surface defects, and tool edge geometries. Mechanical properties were measured to assess the resistance to plastic deformation and impact fatigue fracture resistance. Surface defects were meticulously observed, and tool edge geometries were evaluated through optical microscopies. These analyses uncover the key factors contributing to the best tool performance, notably the resistance to plastic deformation (H3/E2 ratio), impact fatigue fracture resistance, and maintaining uniform tool edge geometries. The results of this study reveal that the moderate stress C3 coating outperformed the other two coatings, exhibiting a 1.5-times-longer tool life, a relatively stable cutting force curve, and favorable friction conditions in the cutting zone. Full article
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20 pages, 4793 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Study on the Optimization of Drilling Performance in Hybrid Nano-Composites and Neat CFRP Composites Using Statistical and Machine Learning Approaches
by Tanzila Nargis, S. M. Shahabaz, Subash Acharya, Nagaraja Shetty, Rashmi Laxmikant Malghan and S. Divakara Shetty
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020067 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have gradually replaced metals due to their exceptional strength-to-weight ratio compared to metallic materials. However, the drilling process often reveals various defects, such as surface roughness, influenced by different drilling parameters. This study explores the drilling quality of [...] Read more.
Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have gradually replaced metals due to their exceptional strength-to-weight ratio compared to metallic materials. However, the drilling process often reveals various defects, such as surface roughness, influenced by different drilling parameters. This study explores the drilling quality of uni-directional CFRP composites, as well as hybrid Al2O3 alumina and hybrid SiC silicon carbide nano-composites, through experimental exploration using step, core, and twist drills. Response surface methodology (RSM) and statistical tools, including main effect plots, ANOVA, contour plots, and optimization techniques, were used to analyze the surface roughness of the hole. Optimization plots were drawn for optimal conditions, suggesting a spindle speed of 1500 rpm, feed of 0.01 mm/rev, and a 4 mm drill diameter for achieving minimum surface roughness. Furthermore, two machine learning models, artificial neural network (ANN) and random forest (RF), were used for predictive analysis. The findings revealed the robust predictive capabilities of both models, with RF demonstrating superior performance over ANN and RSM. Through visual comparisons and error analyses, more insights were gained into model accuracy and potential avenues for improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advanced Composites Manufacturing and Plastics Processing)
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19 pages, 13616 KiB  
Article
Synthetic-to-Real Composite Semantic Segmentation in Additive Manufacturing
by Aliaksei Petsiuk, Harnoor Singh, Himanshu Dadhwal and Joshua M. Pearce
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 66; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020066 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1439
Abstract
The application of computer vision and machine learning methods for semantic segmentation of the structural elements of 3D-printed products in the field of additive manufacturing (AM) can improve real-time failure analysis systems and potentially reduce the number of defects by providing additional tools [...] Read more.
The application of computer vision and machine learning methods for semantic segmentation of the structural elements of 3D-printed products in the field of additive manufacturing (AM) can improve real-time failure analysis systems and potentially reduce the number of defects by providing additional tools for in situ corrections. This work demonstrates the possibilities of using physics-based rendering for labeled image dataset generation, as well as image-to-image style transfer capabilities to improve the accuracy of real image segmentation for AM systems. Multi-class semantic segmentation experiments were carried out based on the U-Net model and the cycle generative adversarial network. The test results demonstrated the capacity of this method to detect such structural elements of 3D-printed parts as a top (last printed) layer, infill, shell, and support. A basis for further segmentation system enhancement by utilizing image-to-image style transfer and domain adaptation technologies was also considered. The results indicate that using style transfer as a precursor to domain adaptation can improve real 3D printing image segmentation in situations where a model trained on synthetic data is the only tool available. The mean intersection over union (mIoU) scores for synthetic test datasets included 94.90% for the entire 3D-printed part, 73.33% for the top layer, 78.93% for the infill, 55.31% for the shell, and 69.45% for supports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart and Advanced Manufacturing)
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25 pages, 7704 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Printing Angle on the Microstructure and Tensile Performance of Iron-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Composite Manufactured Using Fused Filament Fabrication
by Sofiane Guessasma and Sofiane Belhabib
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 65; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020065 - 27 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1156
Abstract
This work emphasizes an innovative approach utilizing 3D imaging technology based on synchrotron radiation to assess the microstructure of second-phase iron particles and the porous structure within 3D-printed PLA/magnetic iron composites at different printing angles. The study examines how these observations relate to [...] Read more.
This work emphasizes an innovative approach utilizing 3D imaging technology based on synchrotron radiation to assess the microstructure of second-phase iron particles and the porous structure within 3D-printed PLA/magnetic iron composites at different printing angles. The study examines how these observations relate to the material’s ductility when processed using fused filament fabrication. In particular, this study examines the impact of one processing parameter, specifically the printing angle, on the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of a polylactic acid (PLA)–iron (PLI) composite designed for magnetic actuation. Fused filament fabrication is employed to produce PLI tensile specimens, with varied printing angles to create different layups. X-ray microtomography is utilized to analyse the microstructure, while tensile mechanical properties are evaluated for all composites, with findings discussed in relation to printing angle conditions. Scanning Electron Microscopy is used to examine the fractography of broken specimens. Results indicate that the printing angle significantly influences the tensile properties and mechanical anisotropy of 3D-printed PLI composites, with an optimal 45°/45° layup enhancing tensile performance. These findings suggest that 3D-printed PLI composites offer a cost-efficient means of producing bio-sourced, light-adaptive materials with intricate magnetic actuation capabilities. By quantifying the modulation of mechanical properties based on printing parameters that influence microstructural arrangement, the research sheds light on a novel aspect of composite material characterization. Full article
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18 pages, 22575 KiB  
Article
Improving the Mechanical Properties of GlassFibre-Reinforced Laser-Sintered Parts Based on Degree of Crystallinity and Porosity Content Using a Warm Isostatic Pressing (WIP) Process
by Hellen De Coninck, Jae Won Choi, Jeroen Soete, Sebastian Meyers and Brecht Van Hooreweder
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 64; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020064 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Additively manufactured fibre-reinforced polymers are gaining traction. After the development and optimisation of a novel fibre-deposition system in a laser sintering (LS) setup, polyamide 12 specimens were produced with and without glass fibres. In this study, the relation between the crystallinity, porosity, and [...] Read more.
Additively manufactured fibre-reinforced polymers are gaining traction. After the development and optimisation of a novel fibre-deposition system in a laser sintering (LS) setup, polyamide 12 specimens were produced with and without glass fibres. In this study, the relation between the crystallinity, porosity, and mechanical properties of LS specimens with and without fibres is investigated. After testing as-built LS specimens, a detrimental effect of the fibres on the specimens’ performance was observed with a decrease in UTS of 6%. The degree of crystallinity remained the same; however, a porosity content of 2.6% was observed in specimens with fibres. These pores can have a negative influence on the bonding between the fibres and the matrix. To investigate the influence of the pores, warm isostatic pressing (WIP) was performed on LS specimens with and without fibres. The WIP process shows a positive influence on the specimens without fibres, resulting in an increase in UTS of 8.5%. The influence of the WIP process on specimens with fibres, however, is much less pronounced, with an increase in UTS of only 2%. Neither the crystallinity nor the porosity are the cause of the less-than-expected increase in UTS in LS specimens with fibres. A number of hypotheses and mitigation strategies are provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Processes and Materials for Additive Manufacturing)
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13 pages, 4353 KiB  
Article
Additive In-Time Manufacturing of Customised Orthoses
by Christian Friedrich, Stephan Rothstock, Laura Slabon and Steffen Ihlenfeldt
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020063 - 21 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1339
Abstract
Additive manufacturing of plastic components in medical technology enables greater freedom of design when designing patient-specific products, in particular, in production of customised medical products, such as orthoses. In the present contribution, the advantages of a digital process chain are combined, from the [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing of plastic components in medical technology enables greater freedom of design when designing patient-specific products, in particular, in production of customised medical products, such as orthoses. In the present contribution, the advantages of a digital process chain are combined, from the 3D scan of the patient to CAD-supported modelling of the corrective form and the orthosis design until the path planning of a printable geometry. The main disadvantages of current additive printing techniques, such as the fused filament fabrication (FFF) process, are high printing times (>12 h) for larger components as well as the low degree of freedom in the 2.5D printing technique that prevent the subsequent application of geometry features to the product. The fast SEAMHex (Screw Extrusion Additive Manufacturing) printing technology with a hexapod kinematic printing bed provides a solution to the mentioned difficulties. Consequently, the high-performance printer has been prepared for the individual requirements of medical technology in terms of materials and geometries. An effective additive manufacturing process has been realised and tested in combination with a digital process chain for orthosis modelling. Full article
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17 pages, 643 KiB  
Article
Biomass Fuel Characteristics of Malaysian Khaya senegalensis Wood-Derived Energy Pellets: Effects of Densification at Varied Processing Temperatures
by Ras Izzati Ismail, Chu Yee Khor and Alina Rahayu Mohamed
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020062 - 20 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1214
Abstract
This study addresses the effects of densification at varied pelletization temperatures on the novel Malaysian Khaya senegalensis wood-derived pellets biomass fuel characteristics. The lack of comprehensive understanding regarding the biomass fuel characteristics of this species prompted the research. By addressing this knowledge gap, [...] Read more.
This study addresses the effects of densification at varied pelletization temperatures on the novel Malaysian Khaya senegalensis wood-derived pellets biomass fuel characteristics. The lack of comprehensive understanding regarding the biomass fuel characteristics of this species prompted the research. By addressing this knowledge gap, this study explores the impact of temperature variations on key fuel properties, contributing to the optimization of sustainable biomass fuel production in manufacturing and materials processing. Khaya senegalensis wood, grown and harvested in Malaysia, was pelletized at different temperatures to analyze the calorific value, volatile matter content, ash content, fixed carbon, bulk density, and moisture contents of the pellets. The experimental data revealed a significant relationship between temperature and these fuel properties. Pelletizing at 75 °C produced the highest calorific value of 19.47 MJ/kg and the maximum fixed carbon content of 10.04%. A low ash level of 4.26% was achieved via pelletizing at 75 °C. According to the results, 75 °C produced the best thermophysical properties. These findings provide valuable understanding of how pelletization temperature influences fuel pellet thermophysical properties, a critical aspect in optimizing fuel pellet production, storage, advancing renewable energy resource utilization, and, finally, promoting a cleaner and more sustainable energy future. Full article
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24 pages, 2695 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Surface Roughness of Aluminium RSA 443 in Diamond Tool Turning
by Gregoire Mbangu Tambwe and Dirk Pons
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 61; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020061 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1275
Abstract
Context—Rapidly solidified aluminium alloy (RSA 443) is increasingly used in the manufacturing of optical mold inserts because of its fine nanostructure, relatively low cost, excellent thermal properties, and high hardness. However, RSA 443 is challenging for single-point diamond machining because the high silicon [...] Read more.
Context—Rapidly solidified aluminium alloy (RSA 443) is increasingly used in the manufacturing of optical mold inserts because of its fine nanostructure, relatively low cost, excellent thermal properties, and high hardness. However, RSA 443 is challenging for single-point diamond machining because the high silicon content mitigates against good surface finishes. Objectives—The objectives were to investigate multiple different ways to optimize the process parameters for optimal surface roughness on diamond-turned aluminium alloy RSA 443. The response surface equation was used as input to three different artificial intelligence tools, namely genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), and differential evolution (DE), which were then compared. Results—The surface roughness machinability of RSA443 in single-point diamond turning was primarily determined by cutting speed, and secondly, cutting feed rate, with cutting depth being less important. The optimal conditions for the best surface finish Ra = 14.02 nm were found to be at the maximum rotational speed of 3000 rpm, cutting feed rate of 4.84 mm/min, and depth of cut of 14.52 µm with optimizing error of 3.2%. Regarding optimization techniques, the genetic algorithm performed best, then differential evolution, and finally particle swarm optimization. Originality—The study determines optimal diamond machining parameters for RSA 443, and identifies the superiority of GA above PSO and DE as optimization methods. The principles have the potential to be applied to other materials (e.g., in the RSA family) and machining processes (e.g., turning, milling). Full article
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15 pages, 5968 KiB  
Article
High-Precision Integration of Optical Sensors into Metallic Tubes Using Rotary Swaging: Process Phenomena in Joint Formation
by Nassr Al-Baradoni, Philipp Heck and Peter Groche
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 60; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020060 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1318
Abstract
A novel process design for the damage-free and highly accurate positional integration of an optical multi-axial force sensor into a hollow tube by means of rotary swaging is introduced. Numerical simulations reveal the relevant process phenomena of thin disc joining inside a pre-toothed [...] Read more.
A novel process design for the damage-free and highly accurate positional integration of an optical multi-axial force sensor into a hollow tube by means of rotary swaging is introduced. Numerical simulations reveal the relevant process phenomena of thin disc joining inside a pre-toothed hollow tube and help us to find an optimal process design. Experimental trials show the significant effect of the axial material flow and the number of tools on the rotary swaging process. By taking these effects into account, successful form- and force-fit joining of the sensor carrying discs into the tube can be achieved. Successful joining of an optical sensor for bending force and torque measurement shows hysteresis-free sensory behavior and thus backlash-free joining of the sensor carrier discs. The paper concludes with a presentation of the results of a numerical study on a potential closed-loop approach to the joining process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dissimilar Metal Joining and Welding)
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23 pages, 5007 KiB  
Article
Minimizing Dimensional Defects in FFF Using a Novel Adaptive Slicing Method Based on Local Shape Complexity
by Ahmed Elayeb, Mehdi Tlija, Ameni Eltaief, Borhen Louhichi and Farhat Zemzemi
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020059 - 11 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1435
Abstract
Additive Manufacturing (AM) has emerged as an innovative technology that gives designers several advantages, such as geometric freedom of design and less waste. However, the quality of the parts produced is affected by different design and manufacturing parameters, such as the part orientation, [...] Read more.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) has emerged as an innovative technology that gives designers several advantages, such as geometric freedom of design and less waste. However, the quality of the parts produced is affected by different design and manufacturing parameters, such as the part orientation, the nozzle temperature and speed, the support material, and the layer thickness. In this context, the layer thickness is considered an important AM parameter affecting the part quality and accuracy. Thus, in this paper, a new adaptative slicing method based on the cusp vector and the surface deviation is proposed with the aim of minimizing the dimensional defects of FFF printed parts and investigate the impact on the dimensional part tolerancing. An algorithm is developed to automatically extract data from the STL file, select the build orientation, and detect intersection points between the initial slicing and the STL mesh. The innovation of this algorithm is exhibited via adapting the slicing according to the surface curvature based on two factors: the cusp vector and the surface deviation. The suggested slicing technique guarantees dimensional accuracy, especially for complex feature shapes that are challenging to achieve using a uniform slicing approach. Finally, a preview of the slicing is displayed, and the G-code is generated to be used by the FFF machine. The case study consists of the dimensional tolerance inspection of prototypes manufactured using the conventional and adaptive slicing processes. The proposed method’s effectiveness is investigated using RE and CMM processes. The method demonstrates its reliability through the observed potential for accuracy improvements exceeding 0.6% and cost savings of up to 4.3% in specific scenarios. This reliability is substantiated by comparing the resulting dimensional tolerances and manufacturing costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Additive Manufacturing of Architected Metallic Materials)
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18 pages, 14352 KiB  
Article
AA5754–Al2O3 Nanocomposite Prepared by Friction Stir Processing: Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Performance
by Moustafa M. Mohammed, Mahmoud E. Abdullah, M. Nafea M. Rohim, Andrzej Kubit and Hamed Aghajani Derazkola
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020058 - 8 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
The utilization of Al2O3 nanopowder to reinforce AA5754 aluminum alloy through blind holes employing the friction stir processing (FSP) technique to produce an aluminum matrix nanocomposite is explored in this paper. Motivated by the necessity to enhance the strength and [...] Read more.
The utilization of Al2O3 nanopowder to reinforce AA5754 aluminum alloy through blind holes employing the friction stir processing (FSP) technique to produce an aluminum matrix nanocomposite is explored in this paper. Motivated by the necessity to enhance the strength and ductility of welded joints, the impacts of varying the tool rotational speed (rpm) and blind hole diameter on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints are investigated. Experimental characterization techniques including SEM, optical microscopy, microhardness, and tensile tests were employed to analyze the welded joints produced under different processing parameters (tool rotational speeds of 910, 1280, and 1700 rpm, and blind hole diameters of 0, 1, 1.5, and 2 mm). Comparative analyses were conducted against base metal properties and joints without reinforcement powder. It was found that the addition of nanopowder resulted in a decrease in the maximum generated heat during FSP, while also reducing the stir zone size compared to samples without nanopowder. Moreover, enhancements in both the strength and ductility of the joints were observed with the incorporation of Al2O3 nanoparticles. The optimal combination of welding conditions, observed at 1280 rpm rotational speed and 1.5 mm hole diameter, yielded a remarkable ultimate tensile strength of 567 MPa, accompanied by a hardness of 45 HV. These results underscore the potential of nano-Al2O3 reinforcement in significantly improving the mechanical properties of the produced nanocomposite, with implications for advancing the performance of welded structures in various engineering applications. Full article
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17 pages, 10373 KiB  
Article
Advances in Additive Friction Extrusion Deposition (AFED): Process and Tool Design
by Max Hossfeld and Arnold Wright
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 57; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020057 - 5 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1938
Abstract
Additive friction extrusion deposition (AFED) is a recently developed additive manufacturing technique that promises high deposition rates at low forces. Due to the novelty of the process, the underlying phenomena and their interactions are not fully understood, and in particular, the processing strategy [...] Read more.
Additive friction extrusion deposition (AFED) is a recently developed additive manufacturing technique that promises high deposition rates at low forces. Due to the novelty of the process, the underlying phenomena and their interactions are not fully understood, and in particular, the processing strategy and tool design are still in their infancy. This work contributes to the state-of-the-art of AFED through a comprehensive analysis of its working principles and an experimental program, including a representative sample component. The working principle and process mechanics of AFED are broken down into their individual components. The forces and their origins and effects on the process are described, and measures of process efficiency and theoretical minimum energy consumption are derived. Three geometrical features of the extrusion die were identified as most relevant to the active material flow, process forces, and deposition quality: the topography of the inner and outer circular surfaces and the geometry of its extrusion channels. Based on this, the experimental program investigated seven different tool designs in terms of efficiency, force reduction, and throughput. The experiments using AA 6061-T6 as feedstock show that AFED is capable of both high material throughput (close to 550 mm3/s) and reduced substrate forces, for example, the forces for a run at 100 mm3/s remained continuously below 500 N and for a run at 400 mm3/s below 3500 N. The material flow and microstructure of AFED were assessed from macro-sections. Significant differences were found between the advancing and retracting sides for both process effects and material flow. Banded structures in the microstructure show strong similarities to other solid-state processes. The manufacturing of the sample components demonstrates that AFED is already capable of producing industrial-grade components. In mechanical tests, interlayer bonding defects resulted in more brittle failure behavior in the build direction of the structure, whereas in the horizontal direction, mechanical properties corresponding to a T4 temper were achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Processes and Materials for Additive Manufacturing)
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17 pages, 5631 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Dimensional Precision, Physical Bonding, and Tensile Performance of 3D-Printed PLA Parts with Different Printing Temperature
by Rayson Pang, Mun Kou Lai, Khairul Izwan Ismail and Tze Chuen Yap
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 56; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020056 - 5 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1841
Abstract
In this study, tensile test specimens were fabricated using a material extrusion 3D-printer at various printing temperatures to evaluate the development of physical bonds within the same layer as well as in between previous layers. The tensile test specimens were fabricated using PLA [...] Read more.
In this study, tensile test specimens were fabricated using a material extrusion 3D-printer at various printing temperatures to evaluate the development of physical bonds within the same layer as well as in between previous layers. The tensile test specimens were fabricated using PLA material, with printing temperatures ranging from 180 °C to 260 °C. Experimental investigations were conducted to investigate the dimensional accuracy and physical appearance of the parts across printing temperatures. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at a strain rate of 1 mm/min and repeated five times for each variable in accordance with the ASTM D638-14 standard. Results showed that increasing the printing temperatures yielded parts with better tensile properties. An approximate difference of 40% in tensile strength was observed between specimens fabricated under the two most extreme conditions (180 °C and 260 °C). The changes in tensile properties were attributed to bonding mechanisms related to interlayer bonding strength and a reduction in voids within the internal geometry. Analysis of the fracture surface using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed fewer and smaller voids within the internal geometry for parts printed at higher temperature. The percentage area of voids reduced significantly when the printing temperature was increased from 180 °C to 220 °C. The tensile properties continuously improved with the printing temperature, with parts printed at 220 °C exhibiting the highest dimensional accuracy. The findings offer insight into the impact of the printing temperature on both the external physical bonds between printed roads, affecting the physical appearance and dimensional accuracy, and the internal bonds, affecting the tensile properties of the fabricated parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design, Processes and Materials for Additive Manufacturing)
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12 pages, 36213 KiB  
Article
Dissimilar Probeless Friction Stir Spot Welding of Aluminum Alloy and USIBOR®1500-AS Steel Thin Plates
by Mariia Rashkovets, Maria Emanuela Palmieri, Nicola Contuzzi, Luigi Tricarico and Giuseppe Casalino
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2024, 8(2), 55; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jmmp8020055 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1293
Abstract
Lap joining of an aluminum AA6082-T6 plate and a UHSS steel plate coated with an Al-Si layer was performed using Probeless Friction Stir Spot Welding (P-FSSW). The dwell time and rotational speed were controlled in the range of 10–15 s and 1000–1500 rpm, [...] Read more.
Lap joining of an aluminum AA6082-T6 plate and a UHSS steel plate coated with an Al-Si layer was performed using Probeless Friction Stir Spot Welding (P-FSSW). The dwell time and rotational speed were controlled in the range of 10–15 s and 1000–1500 rpm, respectively. For all the samples, thermo-mechanical deformation occurred solely within the upper AA6082 plate. A refined grain structure was formed in the aluminum plate close to the surface. The dwell time was responsible for the intensity of the material flow, resulting in stirring between the Al-Si layer and the aluminum plate at 15 s. The microhardness distribution corresponded to the microstructure features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Joining Processes and Techniques 2023)
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