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Ceramics, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 27 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The pursuit of low-power/low-voltage operation in devices has prompted a keen interest in the mesoscale effects within ferroelectric films. The downsizing of ferroelectrics can significantly influence performance: the remanent polarization and coercive field are susceptible to alterations based on thickness. In this study, randomly oriented Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 films were fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using the sol–gel method and rod-like grains in all films. The investigation delved into the correlation between dielectric and ferroelectric properties with film thickness. Additionally, the ferroelectric domain structure was scrutinized, and the resistor properties of the BLT4 film were studied, which shows the potential of BLT films in non-volatile memory and memristor. View this paper
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10 pages, 2278 KiB  
Article
Effects of Replacing Co2+ with Zn2+ on the Dielectric Properties of Ba [Zn1/3(Nb1/2Ta1/2)2/3]O3 Ceramics with High Dielectric Constant and High Quality Factor
by Yuan-Bin Chen, Yu Fan, Shiuan-Ho Chang and Shaobing Shen
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 426-435; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010027 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1293
Abstract
In this study, we used solid-state synthesis to prepare Ba[(ZnxCo1−x)1/3(Nb0.5Ta0.5)2/3]O3 microwave ceramics for mobile communications. Compared with Ba[Zn1/3(Nb0.5Ta0.5)2/3]O3, in the [...] Read more.
In this study, we used solid-state synthesis to prepare Ba[(ZnxCo1−x)1/3(Nb0.5Ta0.5)2/3]O3 microwave ceramics for mobile communications. Compared with Ba[Zn1/3(Nb0.5Ta0.5)2/3]O3, in the prepared materials, Co2+ substitution with Zn2+ improved the Q × f value and enabled densification and sintering at a lower temperature. We used X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyze the obtained microstructure. Ba[(ZnxCo1−x)1/3(Nb0.5Ta0.5)2/3]O3 was found to have a 1:2 ordered hexagonal structure, and its Q × f value increased with the increase in sintering temperature. In this work, excellent microwave dielectric properties—τf = −0.7 ppm/°C, εr = 34.5, and Q × f = 110,000 GHz—were obtained by sintering Ba[(Zn0.3Co0.7)1/3(Nb0.5Ta0.5)2/3]O3 at 1400 °C for 5 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electronic Ceramics)
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15 pages, 6059 KiB  
Article
Structural and Dielectric Properties of Titania Co-Doped with Yttrium and Niobium: Experimental Evidence and DFT Study
by Deborah Y. B. Silva, Reginaldo Muccillo and Eliana N. S. Muccillo
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 411-425; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010026 - 17 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1520
Abstract
This work explores the impact of the sintering temperature and co-dopant contents on the microstructure and dielectric properties of (Y0.5Nb0.5)xTi1−xO2 (0.025 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramics synthesized by the solid state reaction method. The [...] Read more.
This work explores the impact of the sintering temperature and co-dopant contents on the microstructure and dielectric properties of (Y0.5Nb0.5)xTi1−xO2 (0.025 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) ceramics synthesized by the solid state reaction method. The physical mechanism underlying the colossal electric permittivity was systematically investigated with experimental methods and first principles calculations. All specimens exhibited the characteristic tetragonal structure of rutile, besides secondary phases. A niobium- and yttrium-rich secondary phase emerged at the grain boundaries after heating at 1500 °C, changing the main sintering mechanism. The highest value of the electric permittivity (13499 @ 60 °C and 10 kHz) was obtained for (Y0.5Nb0.5)0.05Ti0.95O2 sintered at 1480 °C, and the lowest dissipation factor (0.21@ 60 °C and 10 kHz) for (Y0.5Nb0.5)0.1Ti0.90O2 sintered at 1500 °C. The dielectric properties of Y3+ and Nb5+ co-doped TiO2 are attributed to the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) and electron-pinned dipole defect (EPDD) mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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10 pages, 4804 KiB  
Article
Beyond Scanning Electron Microscopy: Comprehensive Pore Analysis in Transparent Ceramics Using Optical Microscopy
by Francesco Picelli, Jan Hostaša, Andreana Piancastelli, Valentina Biasini, Cesare Melandri and Laura Esposito
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 401-410; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010025 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1300
Abstract
Developing an effective method of quantifying defects in the bulk of transparent ceramics is a challenging task that could facilitate their widespread use as a substitute for single crystals. Conventionally, SEM analysis is used to examine the microstructure but it is limited to [...] Read more.
Developing an effective method of quantifying defects in the bulk of transparent ceramics is a challenging task that could facilitate their widespread use as a substitute for single crystals. Conventionally, SEM analysis is used to examine the microstructure but it is limited to the material surface. On the other hand, optical transmittance assesses material quality, but does not provide information on the size and concentration of defects. In this study, we illustrate the use of a digital optical microscope for the non-destructive, precise, and rapid analysis of residual porosity in transparent ceramics. YAG-based ceramics doped with Yb have been selected for this study because they are used as laser gain media, an application that requires virtually defect-free components. Different production processes were used to produce YAG samples, and the digital optical microscope analysis was used to compare them. This analysis was shown to be effective and precise to measure the size and concentration of the residual pores. In addition, the comparison of samples obtained with different production processes showed that the size and distribution of the residual porosity is affected by the drying step of the powders before shaping by pressing, as well as by the sintering aids used to ease the densification. It also showed that the transmittance is influenced by both the total volume and the concentration of the pores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Ceramics—a Theme Issue in Honor of Dr. Adrian Goldstein)
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16 pages, 16249 KiB  
Article
Hydrogen Permeation Properties of Ternary Ni–BaCe0.9Y0.1O3–Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 Cermet Membranes
by Yoshiteru Itagaki, Hiroyuki Mori, Takumi Matsubayashi and Hiromichi Aono
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 385-400; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010024 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1308
Abstract
A ternary Ni–BaCe0.9Y0.1O3 (BCY)–Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (GDC) cermet involving 40 vol% Ni was fabricated, and its hydrogen permeation characteristics were evaluated when the GDC volume fraction was varied from 0 to 30 vol%. The X-ray [...] Read more.
A ternary Ni–BaCe0.9Y0.1O3 (BCY)–Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (GDC) cermet involving 40 vol% Ni was fabricated, and its hydrogen permeation characteristics were evaluated when the GDC volume fraction was varied from 0 to 30 vol%. The X-ray diffraction results of the cermet after sintering at 1400 °C revealed that GDC was dissolved in BCY when the GDC volume composition was 20 vol%. Regardless of the BCY and GDC volume fractions, the metal conductivity of the cermet was dominated by Ni. After the addition of only 1 vol% GDC, the particle sizes of Ni and BCY in the cermet significantly decreased, and the particle size decreased as the volume fraction of GDC increased. The hydrogen permeability increased with increasing temperature and for up to 10 vol% GDC, and a maximum permeation rate of 0.142 mL min−1 cm−2 was obtained at 700 °C. This value is comparable to or better than previously reported values for Ni-cermets under the same conditions. The amount of hydrogen permeation decreased above 10 vol% GDC. This study demonstrated that Ni-BCY-GDC cermet is a material that has both high hydrogen permeability and CO2 resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 5098 KiB  
Article
Holistic Characterization of MgO-Al2O3, MgO-CaZrO3, and Y2O3-ZrO2 Ceramic Composites for Aerospace Propulsion Systems
by Kateryna O. Shvydyuk, João Nunes-Pereira, Frederico F. Rodrigues, José C. Páscoa, Senentxu Lanceros-Mendez and Abílio P. Silva
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 364-384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010023 - 2 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Aerospace propulsion systems are among the driving forces for the development of advanced ceramics with increased performance efficiency in severe operation conditions. The conducted research focused on the mechanical (Young’s and shear moduli, flexural strength, hardness, and fracture toughness), thermal (thermal conductivity and [...] Read more.
Aerospace propulsion systems are among the driving forces for the development of advanced ceramics with increased performance efficiency in severe operation conditions. The conducted research focused on the mechanical (Young’s and shear moduli, flexural strength, hardness, and fracture toughness), thermal (thermal conductivity and coefficient of thermal expansion), and electric (dielectric properties) characterization of MgO-Al2O3, MgO-CaZrO3, and stable YSZ ceramic composites. The experimental results, considering structural and functional traits, underscore the importance of a holistic understanding of the multifunctionality of advanced ceramics to fulfill propulsion system requirements, the limits of which have not yet been fully explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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22 pages, 16123 KiB  
Article
Franklinite-Zincochromite-Gahnite Solid Solutions for Cool Red Ceramic Pigments with Visible Light Photocatalysis
by Guillermo Monrós, José A. Badenes, Mario Llusar and Carolina Delgado
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 342-363; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010022 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Franklinite-zincochromite-gahnite solid solutions were prepared using ceramic or coprecipitation methods, and their pigmenting capacity as cool ceramic pigments in different glazes (double and single firing frits and porcelain frit) was studied. XRD, UV–Vis–NIR diffuse reflectance, CIEL*a*b* colour analysis, band gap measurements, and the [...] Read more.
Franklinite-zincochromite-gahnite solid solutions were prepared using ceramic or coprecipitation methods, and their pigmenting capacity as cool ceramic pigments in different glazes (double and single firing frits and porcelain frit) was studied. XRD, UV–Vis–NIR diffuse reflectance, CIEL*a*b* colour analysis, band gap measurements, and the photocatalytic degradation of Orange II were carried out to characterise the samples. The following criteria for high red colouring capacity and high NIR reflectance at the minimum Cr amount were found to be the optimal compositions for an intense reddish cool pigment: Zn(Fe1.8Cr0.2), Zn(Al1.5Cr0.5) and Zn(Al1.3Cr0.5Fe0.2)O4. All the powders showed a direct semiconductor behaviour, with a band gap of approximately 2 eV, which fell in the visible range (620 nm); the visible light photocatalysis of Orange II was moderate, but franklinite-zincochromite Zn(Fe1.8Cr0.2) stood out compared with silver orthophosphate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 1965 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Luminescent Emission during Flash Sintering of 8YSZ and 20SDC Ceramics
by Reginaldo Muccillo, Julio Cesar C. A. Diaz and Eliana N. S. Muccillo
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 329-341; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010021 - 25 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1316
Abstract
Light-emission data were collected before, during, and after the occurrence of the flash event in pressureless electric-field-assisted (flash) sintering experiments on ZrO2: 8 mol% Y2O3 (8YSZ) and CeO2: 20 mol% Sm2O3 (20SDC) ceramic [...] Read more.
Light-emission data were collected before, during, and after the occurrence of the flash event in pressureless electric-field-assisted (flash) sintering experiments on ZrO2: 8 mol% Y2O3 (8YSZ) and CeO2: 20 mol% Sm2O3 (20SDC) ceramic green pellets to analyze the luminescent emission from the samples. The experiments were performed at 800 °C with an applied electric field of 100 V·cm−1 at 1 kHz, limiting the electric current to 1 A. Luminescence data were obtained in the 200–1200 nm (ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared) range. The deconvolution of the optical spectra allowed for the identification of emission bands in the visible range due exclusively to the samples. The wavelength maxima of the emission bands in 8YSZ were found to be different from those in 20SDC. It is suggested that these bands might originate from the interaction of the electric current, resulting from the application of the electric field, with the depleted species located at the space-charge region at the grain boundaries of these ceramics. The main results represent a contribution to help to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the fast densification with inhibition of grain growth in electroceramics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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19 pages, 786 KiB  
Review
High-Performance Ceramics in Musculoskeletal Surgery: Current Use and Future Perspectives
by Jörg Eschweiler, Johannes Greven, Björn Rath, Philipp Kobbe, Ali Modabber, Frank Hildebrand, Filippo Migliorini and Ulf Krister Hofmann
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 310-328; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010020 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1901
Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease among the elderly population, necessitating effective treatment options. Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a reliable surgical procedure that has shown good long-term clinical outcomes for OA. However, certain challenges, such as implant failure caused by particle-induced aseptic [...] Read more.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a prevalent disease among the elderly population, necessitating effective treatment options. Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) is a reliable surgical procedure that has shown good long-term clinical outcomes for OA. However, certain challenges, such as implant failure caused by particle-induced aseptic loosening or hypersensitivity to metal ions, remain unresolved in TJA. High-performance ceramic implants have emerged as a promising solution to address these persistent implant-related issues. This review article provides an overview of the composition and characteristics of ceramics used in TJA, highlighting their potential advantages and associated risks. While ceramic implants have demonstrated excellent performance in vivo for hip and knee arthroplasty, their bioinert behaviour is still considered a crucial factor regarding cementless options. Therefore, novel methods are investigated that seem to be able to combine the benefits of ceramic materials with an excellent osseointegration behaviour, which makes ceramics as implant materials an even stronger option for future applications. Full article
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19 pages, 4467 KiB  
Review
Sustainable Approaches for the Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Materials
by Alice Villa, Pardeep Kumar Gianchandani and Francesco Baino
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 291-309; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010019 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 2152
Abstract
Additive manufacturing technologies collectively refer to a set of layer-wise deposition methods that typically rely on CAD-CAM approaches for obtaining products with a complex shape/geometry and high precision and reliability. If the additive manufacturing of polymers is relatively easy and scalable due to [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing technologies collectively refer to a set of layer-wise deposition methods that typically rely on CAD-CAM approaches for obtaining products with a complex shape/geometry and high precision and reliability. If the additive manufacturing of polymers is relatively easy and scalable due to the low temperatures needed to obtain processable inks, using similar technologies to fabricate ceramic products is indeed more challenging and expensive but, on the other hand, allows for obtaining high-quality results that would not be achievable through conventional methods. Furthermore, the implementation of additive manufacturing allows for the addressing of some important concerns related to the environment and sustainability, including the minimization of resource depletion and waste production/disposal. Specifically, additive manufacturing technologies can provide improvements in energy consumption and production costs, besides obtaining less waste material and less CO2 emissions, which are all key points in the context of the circular economy. After providing an overview of the additive manufacturing methods which are specifically applied to ceramics, this review presents the sustainability elements of these processing strategies, with a focus on both current and future benefits. The paucity of specific available studies in the literature—which are included and discussed in this review—suggests that the research on additive manufacturing sustainability in the field of ceramic materials is in the preliminary stage and that more relevant work still deserves to be carried out in the future to explore this fascinating field at the boundary among ceramics science/technology, production engineering and waste management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 8321 KiB  
Article
LiGdxY1−xF4 and LiGdF4:Eu3+ Microparticles as Potential Materials for Optical Temperature Sensing
by Ekaterina I. Oleynikova, Oleg A. Morozov, Stella L. Korableva and Maksim S. Pudovkin
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 276-290; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010018 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1235
Abstract
In this work, the physical characterization of LiGdxY1−xF4 (x = 0.05, 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0) and LiGdF4:Eu3+ microparticles was performed. The distribution coefficient of LiGdxY1−xF4 (x = 0.05) was determined [...] Read more.
In this work, the physical characterization of LiGdxY1−xF4 (x = 0.05, 0.3, 0.7, and 1.0) and LiGdF4:Eu3+ microparticles was performed. The distribution coefficient of LiGdxY1−xF4 (x = 0.05) was determined for the first time (0.84). Based on kinetic characterization data, the LiGdF4 sample was chosen for further Eu3+ doping (0.1 and 1.0 at.%). For the LiGdF4:Eu3+ sample, Eu3+ emission was clearly observed under the excitation of Gd3+. This fact indicates an effective energy transfer from Gd3+ to Eu3+. The temperature-dependent spectral characterization of the LiGdF4:Eu3+ (1.0%) sample revealed that in the 30–250 K temperature range, a broad emission peak is evidenced. Its intensity sharply increases with the temperature decrease. We made a suggestion that this phenomenon is related to the irradiation-induced defects. The integrated luminescence intensity ratio of this broad peak and the Eu3+ emission were taken as temperature-dependent parameters. The sensitivity values are very competitive, and the first maximum occurs at 174 K (3.18%/K). The kinetic characteristics of both Gd3+ and Eu3+ did not demonstrate a notable temperature dependence. The LiGdF4:Eu3+ sample showed the possibility of being used as an optical temperature sensor, operating in the cryogenic temperature range. Full article
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12 pages, 1522 KiB  
Review
Use of Ultra-Translucent Monolithic Zirconia as Esthetic Dental Restorative Material: A Narrative Review
by Ghada Alrabeah, Abdulrahman H. Al-Sowygh and Samaher Almarshedy
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 264-275; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010017 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1594
Abstract
It has been observed in recent years that zirconia (Zr) is being increasingly used for a wide range of clinical applications. There are several reasons for this, but the most significant one is its excellent mechanical properties, specifically its transformation toughening properties compared [...] Read more.
It has been observed in recent years that zirconia (Zr) is being increasingly used for a wide range of clinical applications. There are several reasons for this, but the most significant one is its excellent mechanical properties, specifically its transformation toughening properties compared to other dental ceramics and its improved natural appearance when compared to ceramometal restorations. As a result of the advancement of chairside milling and developments in rapid-sintering technology, the fabrication of dental restorations has become more computerized, time-saving, and accurate over the past few decades. However, a main disadvantage of conventional Zr restorations is that they lack the translucency of glass–ceramics, although they are extremely strong. Recently, by increasing the yttrium %, changing the grain size, and reducing the impurities, the ultra-translucent monolithic zirconia “5-mol%-yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals” has been introduced, with successful attempts to make translucent Zr an aesthetically attractive option for minimally invasive veneer restorations. It is important to note that veneer restorations do not possess the mechanical retentive features of the tooth preparations and rely primarily on bonding to resin cement. This presents a great challenge for the inert Zr since it does not bond chemically with resin cement, unlike glass–ceramic materials that establish chemical adhesion with resin cement, favoring their use for indirect veneer restorations. Taking this into account, this article aims to review the progressive development of ultra-translucent monolithic Zr materials as they are available today and, in the future, represents a concerted drive toward maximum translucency and strength, which renders them a viable treatment option for esthetic veneer restorations. Full article
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14 pages, 5729 KiB  
Article
Mussel-Inspired Construction of Silica-Decorated Ceramic Membranes for Oil–Water Separation
by Qibo Zhou, Qibing Chang, Yao Lu and Jing Sun
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 250-263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010016 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1292
Abstract
In recent years, ceramic membranes have received widespread focus in the area of liquid separation because of their high permeability, strong hydrophilicity, and good chemical stability. However, in practical applications, the surface of ceramic membranes is prone to be contaminated, which degrades the [...] Read more.
In recent years, ceramic membranes have received widespread focus in the area of liquid separation because of their high permeability, strong hydrophilicity, and good chemical stability. However, in practical applications, the surface of ceramic membranes is prone to be contaminated, which degrades the permeation flux of ceramic membranes during the separation process. Inspired by mussels, we imitate the biomimetic mineralization process to prepare a ceramic membrane of nano–silica on the pre-modified zirconia surface by co-deposited polydopamine/polyethyleneimine. The modified ceramic membranes were utilized for the purpose of oil–water separation. Separation performance has been tested using a disc ceramic membrane dynamic filtration device. The outcomes revealed an enhanced permeability in the modified membrane, measuring as 159 L m−2 h−1 bar−1, surpassing the separation flux of the unmodified membrane, which was 104 L m−2 h−1 bar−1. The permeation performance of the modified membrane was increased to 1.5 times. Modified ceramic membranes are highly resistant to fouling. From the beginning to the end of separation process, the oil rejection rate of the modified ceramic membrane is always higher than 99%. After a 2 h oil–water separation test run, modified ceramic membrane permeate flux can be restored to 91% after cleaning. It has an enormous capacity for application in the area of oil–water separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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15 pages, 1960 KiB  
Article
Temperature-Dependent Elastic Properties of B4C from First-Principles Calculations and Phonon Modeling
by Sara Sheikhi, Wylie Stroberg and James D. Hogan
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 235-249; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010015 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Boron carbide plays a crucial role in various extreme environment applications, including thermal barrier coatings, aerospace applications, and neutron absorbers, because of its high thermal and chemical stability. In this study, the temperature-dependent elastic stiffness constants, thermal expansion coefficient, Helmholtz free energy, entropy, [...] Read more.
Boron carbide plays a crucial role in various extreme environment applications, including thermal barrier coatings, aerospace applications, and neutron absorbers, because of its high thermal and chemical stability. In this study, the temperature-dependent elastic stiffness constants, thermal expansion coefficient, Helmholtz free energy, entropy, and heat capacity at a constant volume (Cv) of rhombohedral B4C have been predicted using a quasi-harmonic approach. A combination of volume-dependent first-principles calculations (density functional theory) and first-principles phonon calculations in the supercell framework has been performed. Good agreement between the elastic constants and structural parameters from static calculations is observed. The calculated thermodynamic properties from phonon calculations show trends that align with the literature. As the temperature rises, the predicted free energy follows a decreasing trend, while entropy and Cv follow increasing trends with temperature. Comparisons between the predicted room temperature thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) (7.54×106 K−1) and bulk modulus (228 GPa) from the quasi-harmonic approach and literature results from experiments and models are performed, revealing that the calculated TEC and bulk modulus fall within the established range from the limited set of data from the literature (TEC = 5.73–9.50 ×106 K−1, B = 221–246 GPa). Temperature-dependent Cijs are predicted, enabling stress analysis at elevated temperatures. Overall, the outcomes of this study can be used when performing mechanical and thermal stress analysis (e.g., space shielding applications) and optimizing the design of boron carbide materials for elevated temperature applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 3260 KiB  
Article
Influence of Non-Invasive Zirconium Oxide Surface Treatment on Phase Changes
by Kinga Regulska, Bartłomiej Januszewicz, Anna Jędrzejczak and Leszek Klimek
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 222-234; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010014 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1304
Abstract
The aim of the research was to find a zirconia treatment method that would reduce or minimize the transformation from the tetragonal phase to the monoclinic phase. Background: Yttria-stabilized zirconia is increasingly chosen for the base of permanent prosthetic restorations. To achieve a [...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to find a zirconia treatment method that would reduce or minimize the transformation from the tetragonal phase to the monoclinic phase. Background: Yttria-stabilized zirconia is increasingly chosen for the base of permanent prosthetic restorations. To achieve a good bond between the prosthetic cup and the veneer material, the material must be treated to achieve surface development. This is a mechanical process, during which an unfavorable transformation from the tetragonal into the monoclinic phase takes place, which leads to the weakening of the internal structure of zirconium dioxide, and later damages the prosthetic restoration. Methods: The tested material consisted of cylindrical samples of 3Y-TZP CeramillZi zirconium oxide, which were sintered after cutting out from the block. After sintering, the samples were subjected to the following types of processing: laser structuring, chemical etching and plasma etching. After the surface treatments, the samples were subjected to diffraction tests to determine the phase composition. Next, the wettability was tested to determine the surface free energy. Results: On the basis of the conducted tests, it was noticed that the applied treatments caused a phase transformation from the tetragonal to the monoclinic phase. After the process of chemical etching, the range of the monoclinic phase for the sample was 5%; after plasma etching, it was 8%, and after laser structuring, it was 2%. In addition, post-surface free energy studies have shown that zirconia is wetted better with an apolar than a polar liquid. Conclusions: The obtained results indicate that the transformation was minimized with the treatments we applied; that is why they are called non-invasive methods. According to the literature data, depending on the parameters of the sandblasting process, the percentage of the monoclinic phase in the treated surfaces ranges from 22% to 52%, which confirms the above-mentioned conclusion. Full article
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14 pages, 6981 KiB  
Article
Optical and Spectroscopic Properties of Ho:Lu2O3 Transparent Ceramics Elaborated by Spark Plasma Sintering
by Lucas Viers, Simon Guené-Girard, Gilles Dalla-Barba, Véronique Jubéra, Éric Cormier, Rémy Boulesteix and Alexandre Maître
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 208-221; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010013 - 8 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1318
Abstract
In this work, transparent ceramics were manufactured from nanopowders synthesized by aqueous coprecipitation followed by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) to ensure rapid and full densification. The photoluminescence of Ho:Lu2O3 transparent ceramics was studied in the Visible and IR domains as [...] Read more.
In this work, transparent ceramics were manufactured from nanopowders synthesized by aqueous coprecipitation followed by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) to ensure rapid and full densification. The photoluminescence of Ho:Lu2O3 transparent ceramics was studied in the Visible and IR domains as a function of Ho3+ dopant level from 0.5 at.% to 10 at.%. A cross-relaxation mechanism was identified and favors the 2 μm emission. All of the obtained results indicate that the optical properties are very similar between Lu2−xHoxO3 transparent ceramics and single crystals. Thus, the SPS technique appears to be a very promising method to manufacture such ceramics, which could be used as amplifier media for high-energy solid-state lasers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Ceramics—a Theme Issue in Honor of Dr. Adrian Goldstein)
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16 pages, 9523 KiB  
Article
Plasma Actuators Based on Alumina Ceramics for Active Flow Control Applications
by Frederico F. Rodrigues, Kateryna O. Shvydyuk, João Nunes-Pereira, José C. Páscoa and Abílio P. Silva
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 192-207; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010012 - 6 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1429
Abstract
Plasma actuators have demonstrated great potential for active flow control applications, including boundary layer control, flow separation delay, turbulence control, and aircraft noise reduction. In particular, the material used as a dielectric barrier is crucial for the proper operation of the device. Currently, [...] Read more.
Plasma actuators have demonstrated great potential for active flow control applications, including boundary layer control, flow separation delay, turbulence control, and aircraft noise reduction. In particular, the material used as a dielectric barrier is crucial for the proper operation of the device. Currently, the variety of dielectrics reported in the literature is still quite restricted to polymers including Kapton, Teflon, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), Cirlex, polyisobutylene (PIB) rubber, or polystyrene. Nevertheless, several studies have highlighted the fragilities of polymeric dielectric layers when actuators operate at significantly high-voltage and -frequency levels or for long periods. In the current study, we propose the use of alumina-based ceramic composites as alternative materials for plasma actuator dielectric layers. The alumina composite samples were fabricated and characterized in terms of microstructure, electrical parameters, and plasma-induced flow velocity and compared with a conventional Kapton-based actuator. It was concluded that alumina-based dielectrics are suitable materials for plasma actuator applications, being able to generate plasma-induced flow velocities of approximately 4.5 m/s. In addition, it was verified that alumina-based ceramic actuators can provide similar fluid mechanical efficiencies to Kapton actuators. Furthermore, the ceramic dielectrics present additional characteristics, such as high-temperature resistance, which are not encompassed by conventional Kapton actuators, which makes them suitable for high-temperature applications such as turbine blade film cooling enhancement and plasma-assisted combustion. The high porosity of the ceramic results in lower plasma-induced flow velocity and lower fluid mechanical efficiency, but by minimizing the porosity, the fluid mechanical efficiency is increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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24 pages, 5854 KiB  
Review
Effect of Binder on Oxidation Properties of Tungsten Carbides: A Review by a Conceptual Classification Approach
by Zahra Fathipour, Morteza Hadi, Mohammad Reza Maleki and Filipe Fernandes
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 166-191; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010011 - 31 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
This study presents a conceptual classification scheme to review the literature on improving the oxidation resistance of tungsten carbide by modifying the binder. The first parts of the article are dedicated to the specification of the databases, the search method, and the description [...] Read more.
This study presents a conceptual classification scheme to review the literature on improving the oxidation resistance of tungsten carbide by modifying the binder. The first parts of the article are dedicated to the specification of the databases, the search method, and the description of the criteria chosen to classify the articles. Then, the data collected are presented in statistical graphs according to the proposed classification scheme. The data analyzed show that most of the significant improvements in oxidation resistance are achieved with advanced production processes, especially HIP and SPS, which eliminate porosity to a very high degree. In addition, statistical studies showed that the use of new replacement binders, Ni3Al, Fe–based alloys, FeAl, and Al2O3, improved the oxidation properties in 75–100% of cases. Meanwhile, the use of high–entropy alloys (HEAs) as cermet binders may be the subject of future research for oxidation, given the recently published results of good mechanical properties. Full article
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29 pages, 20894 KiB  
Article
Archaeometric Investigations on Archaeological Findings from Palazzo Corsini Alla Lungara (Rome)
by Tilde de Caro, Fiammetta Susanna, Paola Fraiegari, Renato Sebastiani, Veronica Romoli, Simone Bruno and Andrea Macchia
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 137-165; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010010 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1296
Abstract
This study reports the analytical investigations on clayey and ceramic finds, characterised by high variability in terms of prime materials, with the aim to determine the role of this important ceramic production situated close to the city walls, fortuitously found during service excavations [...] Read more.
This study reports the analytical investigations on clayey and ceramic finds, characterised by high variability in terms of prime materials, with the aim to determine the role of this important ceramic production situated close to the city walls, fortuitously found during service excavations developed in the garden of Palazzo Corsini in Rome. The complexity of the finds led to the choices of appropriate methodologies and techniques suitable for defining the diagnostic elements of each find. Optical microscopy (OM) combined with micro-Raman (µ-Raman) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to analyse the nature and microstructure of the ceramic and burned clay that were found. In such a complicated setting, the objective of conducting chemical analyses is to provide clues to describe the various kinds of ceramics produced, the production and processing methods, and, as a result, the typology of the workshop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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23 pages, 4246 KiB  
Article
A CFD Analysis of the Desalination Performance of Ceramic-Based Hollow Fiber Membranes in Direct Contact Membrane Distillation
by MHD Maher Alrefaai, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Mohammad Rava, Zhong Sheng Tai, Abolfazl Asnaghi, Mohd Hafiz Puteh, Juhana Jaafar, Mukhlis A. Rahman and Mohammed Faleh Abd Al-Ogaili
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 115-136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010009 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1384
Abstract
In this numerical study, the performance of ceramic-based mullite hollow fiber (HF) membranes in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process was evaluated. Three types of membranes were tested: (i) hydrophobic membrane C8-HFM, (ii) rod-like omniphobic membrane (C8-RL/TiO2), and (iii) flower-like [...] Read more.
In this numerical study, the performance of ceramic-based mullite hollow fiber (HF) membranes in a direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process was evaluated. Three types of membranes were tested: (i) hydrophobic membrane C8-HFM, (ii) rod-like omniphobic membrane (C8-RL/TiO2), and (iii) flower-like omniphobic membrane (C8-FL/TiO2). The CFD model was developed and validated with experimental results, which were performed over a 500 min period. The initial mass flux of C8-HFM was 30% and 9% higher than that of C8-FL/TiO2 and C8-RL/TiO2, respectively. However, the flower-like omniphobic membrane C8-FL/TiO2 had the lowest drop in flux, around 11%, while the rod-like omniphobic membrane C8-RL/TiO2 had a 15% reduction, both better than the 23% reduction in the hydrophobic membrane C8-HFM over the 500 min. The study also analyzed the impact of fouling by examining the variation in mass transfer coefficient (MTC) over time. The results indicated that the ceramic-based mullite HF membranes with TiO2 flowers and rods demonstrated a high resistance to fouling compared to C8-HFM. The modified membranes could find applications in the desalination and handling of seawater samples containing organic contaminants. The CFD model’s versatility can be utilized beyond the current investigation’s scope, offering a valuable tool for efficient membrane development solutions, particularly for challenges such as the presence of organic contaminants in seawater. Full article
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14 pages, 10423 KiB  
Article
Glass Composition for Coating and Bonding of Polycrystalline Spinel Ceramic Substrates
by Jacob Hormadaly
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 101-114; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010008 - 25 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1488
Abstract
Design considerations of the lead-based glass composition was broadened beyond the two known criteria of matched index of refraction and thermal coefficient of expansion to include previous studies of thick film materials. Five criteria for the glass-design composition were used: matched index of [...] Read more.
Design considerations of the lead-based glass composition was broadened beyond the two known criteria of matched index of refraction and thermal coefficient of expansion to include previous studies of thick film materials. Five criteria for the glass-design composition were used: matched index of refraction and thermal coefficient of expansion, components (MgO and Al2O3) to slow down dissolution of spinel (MgAl2O4) into the glass, non-crystallizing glass in a broad temperature range and glass with good chemical durability. Synthesis and characterization of glass, glass paste preparation and its application to spinel substrates to form coating and bonding and optical characterizations in the UV, VIS and IR of coated, uncoated, and bonded spinel substrates of two commercial sources are described. Enhancement of transmittance exceeding the theoretical value of polished spinel was found for the first time when glass coating was applied to a ground face of semi-polished spinel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transparent Ceramics—a Theme Issue in Honor of Dr. Adrian Goldstein)
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15 pages, 10056 KiB  
Article
Revascularization of Non-Vital, Immature, Permanent Teeth with Two Bioceramic Cements: A Randomized Controlled Trial
by Alaa Shaker, Mohamed Salem Rekab, Mohammad Alharissy and Naji Kharouf
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 86-100; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010007 - 25 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1555
Abstract
The aim of this study was to clinically and radiographically assess the effects of two bioceramic cements as coronal plug materials for the revascularization of non-vital, immature, permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. Twenty non-vital, immature, permanent, anterior teeth with apical periodontitis were included [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to clinically and radiographically assess the effects of two bioceramic cements as coronal plug materials for the revascularization of non-vital, immature, permanent teeth with apical periodontitis. Twenty non-vital, immature, permanent, anterior teeth with apical periodontitis were included in this study. Samples were randomly divided into two groups based on the coronal plug materials used; group I (GI): Well Root PT (Vericom, Gangwon-do, Korea) and group II (GII): MTA Biorep (Itena Clinical, Paris, France) (n = 10). Follow-up was conducted clinically and radiographically for up to 12 months to evaluate the changes in root dimensions and resolution of the periapical disease and investigate the degree of success. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA tests and Mann–Whitney U tests at a 0.05 significance level. At 12 months, none of the patients in either test group had clinical signs/symptoms. There was a slight increase in root length (4.4% in GI and 3.4% in GII) and a slight increase in dentin wall thickness (10.2% in GI and 9.9% in GII) with no statistically significant (p > 0.05) differences. Whilst there was a significant decrease in lesion dimension in all patients after 12 moths of treatment (93% in GI and 91% in GII), there were no statistically significant differences between the two study groups (p > 0.05). Regarding the degree of success, all cases (100%) achieved the primary goal (the elimination of symptoms and the evidence of bony healing), while 60% in GI and 40% in GII achieved the secondary goal (increased root wall thickness and/or increased root length). No statistically significant difference was found between groups (p > 0.05). Both bioceramic cements showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic findings. Premixed calcium aluminosilicate and tricalcium silicate cements could be used as coronal plug materials in revascularization procedures. Bioceramic cements can be considered promising coronal plug materials for the revascularization of immature, permanent teeth with necrotic pulps and apical periodontitis due to their physicochemical and biological properties. Full article
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18 pages, 5270 KiB  
Review
Ceramics 3D Printing: A Comprehensive Overview and Applications, with Brief Insights into Industry and Market
by Mohamed Abdelkader, Stanislav Petrik, Daisy Nestler and Mateusz Fijalkowski
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 68-85; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010006 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3311
Abstract
3D printing enables the creation of complex and sophisticated designs, offering enhanced efficiency, customizability, and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional manufacturing methods. Ceramics, known for their heat resistance, hardness, wear resistance, and electrical insulation properties, are particularly suited for aerospace, automotive, electronics, healthcare, and [...] Read more.
3D printing enables the creation of complex and sophisticated designs, offering enhanced efficiency, customizability, and cost-effectiveness compared to traditional manufacturing methods. Ceramics, known for their heat resistance, hardness, wear resistance, and electrical insulation properties, are particularly suited for aerospace, automotive, electronics, healthcare, and energy applications. The rise of 3D printing in ceramics has opened new possibilities, allowing the fabrication of complex structures and the use of diverse raw materials, overcoming the limitations of conventional fabrication methods. This review explores the transformative impact of 3D printing, or additive manufacturing, across various sectors, explicitly focusing on ceramics and the different 3D ceramics printing technologies. Furthermore, it presents several active companies in ceramics 3D printing, proving the close relation between academic research and industrial innovation. Moreover, the 3D printed ceramics market forecast shows an annual growth rate (CAGR) of more than 4% in the ceramics 3D printing market, reaching USD 3.6 billion by 2030. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 3616 KiB  
Article
Improving the Quality of Ceramic Products by Removing the Defective Surface Layer
by Alexander S. Metel, Marina A. Volosova, Enver S. Mustafaev, Yury A. Melnik, Anna A. Okunkova and Sergey N. Grigoriev
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 55-67; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010005 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1554
Abstract
The surface of ceramic products manufactured using diamond grinding is replete with shallow scratches, deep grooves and other defects. The thickness of the defective layer amounts to 3–4 µm and it must be removed to increase wear resistance of the products when exposed [...] Read more.
The surface of ceramic products manufactured using diamond grinding is replete with shallow scratches, deep grooves and other defects. The thickness of the defective layer amounts to 3–4 µm and it must be removed to increase wear resistance of the products when exposed to intense thermomechanical loads. In this study, removal of the defective layers from samples made of ZrO2, Al2O3 and Si3N4 with a beam of fast argon atoms was carried out with a stripping rate of up to 5 µm/h. To prevent contamination of the source of fast argon atoms by the sputtered dielectric material, the beam was compressed and passed to the sample through a small hole in a wide screen. Due to the removal of the defective layer, abrasive wear decreased by an order of magnitude and the adhesion of coatings deposited on the cleaned ceramic surfaces improved significantly. Full article
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16 pages, 1849 KiB  
Article
Study of the Resistance of Lithium-Containing Ceramics to Helium Swelling
by Artem L. Kozlovskiy, Dmitriy I. Shlimas, Daryn B. Borgekov and Maxim V. Zdorovets
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 39-54; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010004 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1485
Abstract
The paper presents the results of studies of the resistance of lithium ceramics to helium swelling during its accumulation in the structure of the near-surface layer, and the identification of the three types of lithium ceramics most resistant to radiation degradation: Li4 [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of studies of the resistance of lithium ceramics to helium swelling during its accumulation in the structure of the near-surface layer, and the identification of the three types of lithium ceramics most resistant to radiation degradation: Li4SiO4, Li2TiO3, and Li2ZrO3. The simulation of helium swelling under high-dose irradiation was carried out by irradiation with He2+ ions with fluences of 1 × 1016 ion/cm2–5 × 1017 ion/cm2, which allows for simulating the implanted helium accumulation with a high concentration in the damaged surface layer (about 500 nm thick). The samples were irradiated at a temperature of 1000 K, the choice of which was determined by the possibility of simulating radiation damage as close as possible to real operating conditions. Such accumulation can result in the formation of gas-filled bubbles. Through the application of X-ray phase analysis, indentation testing, and thermophysical parameter assessments, it was ascertained that among the three ceramic types, Li4SiO4 ceramics exhibit the highest resistance to helium-induced swelling. These ceramics experienced less significant alterations in their properties compared to the other two types. An analysis of the correlation between the structural and strength parameters of lithium-containing ceramics revealed that the most significant changes occur when the volumetric swelling of the crystal lattice becomes the dominant factor in structural alterations. This phenomenon is manifested as an accelerated degradation of strength characteristics, exceeding 10%. At the same time, analysis of these alterations in the stability of thermophysical parameters to the accumulation of structural distortions revealed that, regardless of the type of ceramics, the degradation of thermophysical properties is most pronounced under high-dose irradiation (above 1017 ion/cm2). Full article
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10 pages, 5883 KiB  
Article
Effect of Thickness on Ferroelectric Properties of Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 Thin Films
by Wenfeng Yue, Yali Cai, Quansheng Guo, Dawei Wang and Tingting Jia
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 29-38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010003 - 6 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1569
Abstract
The pursuit of low-power/low-voltage operation in devices has prompted a keen interest in the mesoscale effects within ferroelectric thin films. The downsizing of ferroelectrics can significantly influence performance; for instance, the remanent polarization and coercive field are susceptible to alterations based on thickness. [...] Read more.
The pursuit of low-power/low-voltage operation in devices has prompted a keen interest in the mesoscale effects within ferroelectric thin films. The downsizing of ferroelectrics can significantly influence performance; for instance, the remanent polarization and coercive field are susceptible to alterations based on thickness. In this study, randomly oriented Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 thin films were fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using the sol–gel method, and SEM observations revealed rod-like grains in all thin films. The investigation delved into the correlation between dielectric and ferroelectric properties with thin film thickness. The thin film exhibited an increased remanent polarization and a reduced coercive electric field. Additionally, the ferroelectric domain structure was scrutinized through PFM, and the resistor properties of the BLT4 thin film were studied, which shows the potential of BLT thin films in non-volatile memory and memristor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Electronic Ceramics)
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14 pages, 5120 KiB  
Article
Impact of Europium and Niobium Doping on Hafnium Oxide (HfO2): Comparative Analysis of Sol–Gel and Combustion Synthesis Methods
by Katrina Laganovska, Virginija Vitola, Ernests Einbergs, Ivita Bite, Aleksejs Zolotarjovs, Madara Leimane, Gatis Tunens and Krisjanis Smits
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 15-28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010002 - 24 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1621
Abstract
This study compares HfO2 ceramics synthesized using sol–gel and combustion methods, emphasizing the impact of the method of synthesis on the resulting properties of the material. The research findings illustrate morphological differences between sol–gel and combustion-derived HfO2. While sol–gel samples [...] Read more.
This study compares HfO2 ceramics synthesized using sol–gel and combustion methods, emphasizing the impact of the method of synthesis on the resulting properties of the material. The research findings illustrate morphological differences between sol–gel and combustion-derived HfO2. While sol–gel samples displayed irregular nanoparticles with pronounced boundaries, combustion samples revealed more homogeneous structures with particles tending towards coalescence. It was discerned that Eu3+ doping induced oxygen vacancies, stabilizing the tetragonal phase, while subsequent doping with Nb5+ significantly reduced these vacancies, which was also observed in photoluminescence analysis. Furthermore, combustion synthesis left fewer organic residues, with urea presence during synthesis contributing to residual organic components in the material. XPS analysis was used to evaluate the presence of oxygen-deficient hafnia sub-oxide in the samples. The study underscores the important role of tailored synthesis methods in optimizing the properties and applications of HfO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Ceramics, 2nd Edition)
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14 pages, 2500 KiB  
Article
Tuning the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Transparent Lithium Aluminosilicate Glass-Ceramics by a Two-Stage Heat Treatment
by Andrey S. Naumov, Georgiy Yu. Shakhgildyan, Nikita V. Golubev, Alexey S. Lipatiev, Sergey S. Fedotov, Roman O. Alekseev, Elena S. Ingat’eva, Vitaliy I. Savinkov and Vladimir N. Sigaev
Ceramics 2024, 7(1), 1-14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ceramics7010001 - 22 Dec 2023
Viewed by 2226
Abstract
Transparent glass-ceramics with a Li2O–Al2O3–SiO2 (LAS) system have been extensively utilized in optical systems in which thermal stability is of utmost importance. This study is aimed to develop thermal treatment routes that can effectively control the [...] Read more.
Transparent glass-ceramics with a Li2O–Al2O3–SiO2 (LAS) system have been extensively utilized in optical systems in which thermal stability is of utmost importance. This study is aimed to develop thermal treatment routes that can effectively control the structure of transparent LAS glass-ceramics and tune its thermal expansion coefficient within a wide range for novel applications in photonics and integrated optics. The optimal conditions for the nucleation and crystallization of LAS glass were determined by means of differential scanning calorimetry and a polythermal analysis. XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and TEM microscopy were employed to examine the structural changes which occurred after heat treatments. It was found that the second stage of heat treatment promotes the formation of β-eucryptite-like solid solution nanocrystals, which enables effective control of the coefficient of thermal expansion of glass-ceramics in a wide temperature range of −120 to 500 °C. This work provides novel insights into structural rearrangement scenarios occurring in LAS glass, which are crucial for accurately predicting its crystallization behavior and ultimately achieving transparent glass-ceramics with desirable properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Glasses and Glass-Ceramics)
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