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Ultrastructural Remodeling of the Neurovascular Unit in the Female Diabetic db/db Model–Part II: Microglia and Mitochondria

1
Diabetes and Cardiovascular Center, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
2
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
3
Electron Microscopy Core Facility, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
4
Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans Hospital, Columbia, MO 65291, USA
5
Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 27 September 2018 / Published: 7 October 2018
Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with diabetic cognopathy. This study tested the hypothesis that neurovascular unit(s) (NVU) within cerebral cortical gray matter regions may depict abnormal cellular remodeling. The monogenic (Leprdb) female diabetic db/db [BKS.CgDock7m +/+Leprdb/J] (DBC) mouse model was utilized for this ultrastructural study. Upon sacrifice (20 weeks), left-brain hemispheres of the DBC and age-matched nondiabetic control C57BL/KsJ (CKC) mice were immediately immersion-fixed. We observed an attenuation/loss of endothelial blood–brain barrier tight/adherens junctions and pericytes, thickened basement membranes, adherent red and white blood cells, neurovascular unit microbleeds and pathologic remodeling of protoplasmic astrocytes. In this second of a three-part series, we focus on the observational ultrastructural remodeling of microglia and mitochondria in relation to the NVU in leptin receptor deficient DBC models. This study identified novel ultrastructural core signature remodeling changes, which consisted of invasive activated microglia, microglial aberrant mitochondria with nuclear chromatin condensation and adhesion of white blood cells to an activated endothelium of the NVU. In conclusion, the results implicate activated microglia in NVU uncoupling and the resulting ischemic neuronal and synaptic damage, which may be related to impaired cognition and diabetic cognopathy. View Full-Text
Keywords: astrocyte; db/db mouse model; microglia; mitochondria; neuroglia; neurovascular unit; type 2 diabetes astrocyte; db/db mouse model; microglia; mitochondria; neuroglia; neurovascular unit; type 2 diabetes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hayden, M.R.; Grant, D.G; Aroor, A.R.; DeMarco, V.G. Ultrastructural Remodeling of the Neurovascular Unit in the Female Diabetic db/db Model–Part II: Microglia and Mitochondria. Neuroglia 2018, 1, 311-326. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia1020021

AMA Style

Hayden MR, Grant DG, Aroor AR, DeMarco VG. Ultrastructural Remodeling of the Neurovascular Unit in the Female Diabetic db/db Model–Part II: Microglia and Mitochondria. Neuroglia. 2018; 1(2):311-326. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia1020021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hayden, Melvin R.; Grant, DeAna G; Aroor, Annayya R.; DeMarco, Vincent G. 2018. "Ultrastructural Remodeling of the Neurovascular Unit in the Female Diabetic db/db Model–Part II: Microglia and Mitochondria" Neuroglia 1, no. 2: 311-326. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia1020021

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