Next Issue
Volume 2, March

Fuels, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2020) – 5 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) are the main components of biodiesel from crops such as rapeseed. FAME fuels can be blended with fossil diesel to give a more environment-friendly fuel. There are, however, differences in the chemical structure of the fuels, and to get optimal engine performance and minimum pollutant emissions, research is needed. In this work, we have developed chemical models that can be used to model ignition events in engine simulations. View this paper.
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessArticle
Mesoporous Adsorbents for Desulfurization of Model Diesel Fuel: Optimization, Kinetic, and Thermodynamic Studies
Fuels 2020, 1(1), 47-58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels1010005 - 14 Nov 2020
Viewed by 588
Abstract
Mesoporous alumina-based adsorbents consisting of a π-electron acceptor complexing agent (2,7-dinitro-9-fluorenone) were synthesized and characterized. Adsorbents were screened for the removal of sulfur compounds from a model ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel via a charge transfer complex (CTC) mechanism. The sulfur adsorption isotherms and kinetics [...] Read more.
Mesoporous alumina-based adsorbents consisting of a π-electron acceptor complexing agent (2,7-dinitro-9-fluorenone) were synthesized and characterized. Adsorbents were screened for the removal of sulfur compounds from a model ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel via a charge transfer complex (CTC) mechanism. The sulfur adsorption isotherms and kinetics were examined. The kinetics of sulfur adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order model with the CTC adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents screened, a commercial γ-Al2O3 CTC adsorbent showed the highest desulfurization in a short-run period. The regeneration of spent adsorbent was studied with three different polar solvents, namely chloroform, dichloromethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Dichloromethane was found to be the most suitable solvent for extracting a major portion of sulfur compounds occupied in the pores of the spent adsorbent. γ-Al2O3 CTC adsorbent can be reused after regeneration. Thermodynamic parameters such as Ea, ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS provided a better insight into the adsorption process. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report
Thermal Activation of Digested Sewage Sludges for Carbon Dioxide Removal from Biogas
Fuels 2020, 1(1), 30-46; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels1010004 - 22 Oct 2020
Viewed by 501
Abstract
Anaerobically digested sewage sludges were used as feedstock in the production of activated carbons through physical activation. These char samples were experimentally tested as adsorbents for the removal of CO2 from a simulated biogas mixture. The CO2 concentration level allowed in [...] Read more.
Anaerobically digested sewage sludges were used as feedstock in the production of activated carbons through physical activation. These char samples were experimentally tested as adsorbents for the removal of CO2 from a simulated biogas mixture. The CO2 concentration level allowed in biomethane was fixed from the European Standards EN 16723-1 and EN 16723-2. The char yield and the subsequent adsorption capacity values were studied, considering the operating parameters of the process. A physical activation process was considered with the following parameters: the temperature, the dwell time, the activating agent, the heating rate, the flow rate, and the method. Among the adsorption tests, the activating temperature and the agent employed affected the CO2 removal. The maximum adsorption capacity was achieved with nitrogen as an activating agent at 600 °C, with 2 h of dwell time (102.5 mg/g). Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Composition of Reduced Mechanisms for Ignition of Biodiesel Surrogates
Fuels 2020, 1(1), 15-29; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels1010003 - 07 Sep 2020
Viewed by 643
Abstract
Chemical kinetics mechanisms describing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) biofuel combustion are quite extensive and cannot be implemented in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of real engine systems. Using the reduction methodology Ant Colony Reduction (ACR), skeletal reduction followed by optimization has been performed [...] Read more.
Chemical kinetics mechanisms describing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) biofuel combustion are quite extensive and cannot be implemented in Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations of real engine systems. Using the reduction methodology Ant Colony Reduction (ACR), skeletal reduction followed by optimization has been performed for the C-11 FAME biodiesel components methyl decanoate (MD), methyl 5-decenoate (MDe5), and methyl 9-decenoate (MDe9), and for the alkane n-decane. The aim of the present study was to produce small reduced mechanisms accurately describing ignition of the fuels over a wide range of conditions, and in addition to compare the size and composition of reduced mechanisms constructed from two parent mechanisms of different complexity. Reduction targets were ignition delay times over a wide range of equivalence ratios and pressures, for separate temperature ranges of 600–1100 K (LT) and 1100–1500 K (HT). One of the complex mechanisms was constructed to be simplified by a lumping approach and this one included MD and was also used to perform reduction for the alkane n-decane. The most detailed parent mechanism was used to create reduced mechanisms for all the three methyl esters. The lumped complex mechanisms resulted in more compact reduced mechanisms, 157 reactions for LT of MD, compared to 810 reactions for the more detailed mechanism. MD required the largest fuel breakdown subsets while the unsaturated methyl esters could be described by smaller subsets. All mechanisms had similar subsets for the smallest hydrocarbons and H/O chemistry, independent of the fuel and the choice of parent mechanism. The ACR approach for mechanism reduction created reduced mechanisms with high accuracy for all conditions included in the present study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Thermal Transformation of Palm Waste to High-Quality Hydrocarbon Fuel
Fuels 2020, 1(1), 2-14; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels1010002 - 11 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 785
Abstract
Empty fruit bunches (EFB) are waste products in the palm oil industry. Upon pressing of EFB, a liquor is produced which contains low grade fats, oils, and greases (FOG). These are the least valuable products of palm oil production, and are often discarded [...] Read more.
Empty fruit bunches (EFB) are waste products in the palm oil industry. Upon pressing of EFB, a liquor is produced which contains low grade fats, oils, and greases (FOG). These are the least valuable products of palm oil production, and are often discarded as waste. It is shown here that the EFB pressed liquor can be thermally transformed at or below 350 °C to produce a series of hydrocarbons in the range of kerosene and diesel fuel. This is distinctly different from other studies of biofuels from palm oil, which were based entirely on biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) and biogas production. Furthermore, this transformation takes place without addition of an external catalyst, as was shown by comparison to reactions with the potential Lewis acid catalysts, ferric sulfate, and molecular sieves. The product distribution is similar to that obtained from brown grease, another waste FOG stream obtained from the sewage treatment industry, although the products from palm oil waste are less sensitive to reaction conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Fuels)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessEditorial
Fuels—An International and Interdisciplinary Scientific Open Access Journal
Fuels 2020, 1(1), 1; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels1010001 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 629
Abstract
Fuels are deeply entrenched in every aspect of our daily life [...] Full article
Next Issue
Back to TopTop