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Fuels, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This study investigates the application of fiber optic technology to optimize completion design in a hydraulic fracture stimulation for the Marcellus Shale Reservoir. With a focus on improving cluster efficiencies and overcoming interstage communication challenges, the research utilizes real-time data from distributed acoustic (DAS), temperature (DTS), and strain (DSS) measurements. Recommendations include employing a geomechanical completion design, avoiding non-uniform, high-natural-fracture zones during hydraulic fracture stimulations, implementing a short stage length, and using more 100 mesh sand. The effective application of fiber optic technology, providing real-time DAS, DTS, and slow strain data, proves instrumental in addressing interstage communication challenges, contributing to improved reservoir performances and cost-effective operations in hydraulic fracture stimulations. View this paper
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16 pages, 3999 KiB  
Article
1H NMR and UV-Vis as Analytical Techniques to Evaluate Biodiesel Conversion and Oxidative Stability
by Emanuelle Braga, Luana Damasceno, Chastryane Barros de Sousa Silva, Lucas Silva, Maria Cavalcante, César Barreto, Silvia Silva, Francisco Murilo Tavares de Luna, Luciana Bertini, Tassio Nascimento and Maria Rios
Fuels 2024, 5(1), 107-122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels5010007 - 18 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1005
Abstract
The present study evaluated the applicability of 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies as analytical techniques for the characterization and determination of biodiesel conversion and for monitoring the oxidative stability of biodiesel samples with antioxidants. For this study, safflower and babassu biodiesels were [...] Read more.
The present study evaluated the applicability of 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies as analytical techniques for the characterization and determination of biodiesel conversion and for monitoring the oxidative stability of biodiesel samples with antioxidants. For this study, safflower and babassu biodiesels were obtained through transesterification, and physicochemical properties confirmed the success of both reactions. A bench-top accelerated oxidation system was used as an alternative to the Rancimat® method, with samples of 6.0 g heated at 110 ± 5 °C and collected every 2 h for 12 h. The agreement for biodiesel conversions was good, with divergences between 2% and 0.4% for safflower biodiesel and 1.9% for babassu biodiesel. As for UV-Vis spectroscopy, the technique showed the same trend as the Rancimat® method, showing efficiency in evaluating the oxidative stability of safflower biodiesel and in the performance of antioxidants BHT and DMP-30. The accuracy of NMR signals integration for mixtures of safflower oil and safflower biodiesel and the use of UV-Vis spectroscopy associated with a bench-top accelerated oxidation system to investigate the performance of phenolic and amine antioxidants in safflower and babassu biodiesel were explored for the first time, showing results close to the standard methods. Therefore, 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies could be applied as alternatives to the GC and Rancimat® methods to determine conversion and monitor the oxidative stability of biodiesel rapidly and practically. Full article
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17 pages, 4507 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study of Premixed PODE3-4/CH4 Flames at Engine-Relevant Conditions
by Yupeng Leng, Xiang Ji, Chengcheng Zhang, Nigel Simms, Liming Dai and Chunkan Yu
Fuels 2024, 5(1), 90-106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels5010006 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 687
Abstract
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (PODEn, n ≥ 1) is a promising alternative fuel to diesel with higher reactivity and low soot formation tendency. In this study, PODE3-4 is used as a pilot ignition fuel for methane (CH4) and the [...] Read more.
Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (PODEn, n ≥ 1) is a promising alternative fuel to diesel with higher reactivity and low soot formation tendency. In this study, PODE3-4 is used as a pilot ignition fuel for methane (CH4) and the combustion characteristics of PODE3-4/CH4 mixtures are investigated numerically using an updated PODE3-4 mechanism. The ignition delay time (IDT) and laminar burning velocity (LBV) of PODE3-4/CH4 blends were calculated at high temperature and high pressure relevant to engine conditions. It is discovered that addition of a small amount of PODE3-4 has a dramatic promotive effect on IDT and LBV of CH4, whereas such a promoting effect decays at higher PODE3-4 addition. Kinetic analysis was performed to gain more insight into the reaction process of PODE3-4/CH4 mixtures at different conditions. In general, the promoting effect originates from the high reactivity of PODE3-4 at low temperatures and it is further confirmed in simulations using a perfectly stirred reactor (PSR) model. The addition of PODE3-4 significantly extends the extinction limit of CH4 from a residence time of ~0.5 ms to that of ~0.08 ms, indicating that the flame stability is enhanced as well by PODE3-4 addition. It is also found that NO formation is reduced in lean or rich flames; moreover, NO formation is inhibited by too short a residence time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Kinetics of Biofuel Combustion)
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15 pages, 2216 KiB  
Article
Sub-Supercritical Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Lignocellulose and Protein-Containing Biomass
by Ayaz Ali Shah, Kamaldeep Sharma, Tahir Hussain Seehar, Saqib Sohail Toor, Judit Sandquist, Inge Saanum and Thomas Helmer Pedersen
Fuels 2024, 5(1), 75-89; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels5010005 - 26 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 916
Abstract
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an emerging technology for bio-crude production but faces challenges in determining the optimal temperature for feedstocks depending on the process mode. In this study, three feedstocks—wood, microalgae spirulina (Algae Sp.), and hydrolysis lignin were tested for sub-supercritical HTL [...] Read more.
Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an emerging technology for bio-crude production but faces challenges in determining the optimal temperature for feedstocks depending on the process mode. In this study, three feedstocks—wood, microalgae spirulina (Algae Sp.), and hydrolysis lignin were tested for sub-supercritical HTL at 350 and 400 °C through six batch-scale experiments. An alkali catalyst (K2CO3) was used with wood and hydrolysis lignin, while e (Algae Sp.) was liquefied without catalyst. Further, two experiments were conducted on wood in a Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) at 350 and 400 °C which provided a batch versus continuous comparison. Results showed Algae Sp. had higher bio-crude yields, followed by wood and lignin. The subcritical temperature of 350 °C yielded more biocrude from all feedstocks than the supercritical range. At 400 °C, a significant change occurred in lignin, with the maximum percentage of solids. Additionally, the supercritical state gave higher values for Higher Heating Values (HHVs) and a greater amount of volatile matter in bio-crude. Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) analysis revealed that phenols dominated the composition of bio-crude derived from wood and hydrolysis lignin, whereas Algae Sp. bio-crude exhibited higher percentages of N-heterocycles and amides. The aqueous phase analysis showed a Total Organic Carbon (TOC) range from 7 to 22 g/L, with Algae Sp. displaying a higher Total Nitrogen (TN) content, ranging from 11 to 13 g/L. The pH levels of all samples were consistently within the alkaline range, except for Wood Cont. 350. In a broader perspective, the subcritical temperature range proved to be advantageous for enhancing bio-crude yield, while the supercritical state improved the quality of the bio-crude. Full article
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22 pages, 3774 KiB  
Article
Integrated Petrophysical Evaluation and Rock Physics Modeling of Broom Creek Deep Saline Aquifer for Geological CO2 Storage
by Prasad Pothana, Ghoulem Ifrene and Kegang Ling
Fuels 2024, 5(1), 53-74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels5010004 - 6 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
Fossil fuels, such as coal and hydrocarbons, are major drivers of global warming and are primarily responsible for worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon dioxide CO2. The storage of CO2 in deep saline reservoirs is acknowledged as one of the [...] Read more.
Fossil fuels, such as coal and hydrocarbons, are major drivers of global warming and are primarily responsible for worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon dioxide CO2. The storage of CO2 in deep saline reservoirs is acknowledged as one of the top practical and promising methods to reduce CO2 emissions and meet climate goals. The North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC) recently approved the fourth Class VI permit for a carbon capture and storage project in the Williston basin of North Dakota for the geological CO2 storage in the Broom Creek formation. The current research aimed to conduct a comprehensive petrophysical characterization and rock physics modeling of the Broom Creek deep saline reservoir to unravel the mineralogical distribution and to understand the variations in petrophysical and elastic properties across the formation. This study utilized geophysical well logs, routine core analysis, and advanced core analysis to evaluate the Broom Creek formation. Multimineral petrophysical analysis calibrated with X-ray diffraction results reveals that this formation primarily comprises highly porous clean sandstone intervals with low-porosity interspersed with dolomite, anhydrite, and silt/clay layers. The formation exhibits varying porosities up to 0.3 and Klinkenberg air permeabilities up to ∼2600 mD. The formation water resistivity using Archie’s equation is approximately 0.055 ohm-m at 150 °F, corresponding to around 63,000 ppm NaCl salinity, which is consistent with prior data. The pore throat distribution in the samples from clean sandstone intervals is primarily situated in the macro-mega scales. However, the presence of anhydrite and dolomite impedes both porosity and pore throat sizes. The accurate prediction of effective elastic properties was achieved by developing a rock physics template. Dry rock moduli were modeled using Hill’s average, while Berryman’s self-consistent scheme was employed for modeling saturated moduli. Full article
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20 pages, 13410 KiB  
Article
Application of Fiber Optics for Completion Design Optimization: A Methodological Approach and Key Findings
by Ebrahim Fathi, Fatemeh Belyadi, Mohammad Faiq Adenan and Christian Pacheco
Fuels 2024, 5(1), 33-52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels5010003 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 950
Abstract
This study investigates the application of fiber optic technology to optimize completion design in a hydraulic fracture stimulation for Marcellus Shale Reservoir. With a focus on improving cluster efficiencies and overcoming interstage communication challenges, the research utilizes real-time data from distributed acoustic (DAS), [...] Read more.
This study investigates the application of fiber optic technology to optimize completion design in a hydraulic fracture stimulation for Marcellus Shale Reservoir. With a focus on improving cluster efficiencies and overcoming interstage communication challenges, the research utilizes real-time data from distributed acoustic (DAS), temperature (DTS), and strain (DSS) measurements. The methodology comprises a comprehensive analysis of completion and stimulation reports, fiber optics, microseismic data, and well logs. Conducted at the MSEEL well pads, MIP, and Boggess, and equipped with permanent and deployable fiber optic cables, this study emphasizes that engineered/geomechanical completion design leads to sustained cluster efficiency and stage production performance. Inefficient cluster efficiencies are primarily linked to fracture communication. Recommendations include employing a geomechanical completion design, avoiding non-uniform high natural fracture zones during hydraulic fracture stimulations, implementing short stage length, and using more 100 mesh sand. These insights, derived from correlations between fracture counts, distributed strain sensing (DSS), cluster efficiency, production logging, and production data, offer significant implications for optimizing completion design in unconventional reservoirs. The effective application of fiber optic technology, providing real-time DAS, DTS, and slow strain data, proves instrumental in addressing interstage communication challenges, contributing to improved reservoir performances and cost-effective operations in hydraulic fracture stimulations. Full article
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16 pages, 11421 KiB  
Article
Corrosion Effect of Biodiesel-Diesel Blend on Different Metals/Alloy as Automotive Components Materials
by Ancaelena Eliza Sterpu, Bianca Georgiana Simedrea, Timur Vasile Chis and Olga Valerica Săpunaru
Fuels 2024, 5(1), 17-32; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels5010002 - 15 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1561
Abstract
Biodiesel has emerged as a progressively widespread and significant alternative to traditional diesel fuel within the transportation sector. Despite its growing popularity, the issue of corrosive tendencies upon interaction with both moving and static components of diesel engines and fuel systems poses a [...] Read more.
Biodiesel has emerged as a progressively widespread and significant alternative to traditional diesel fuel within the transportation sector. Despite its growing popularity, the issue of corrosive tendencies upon interaction with both moving and static components of diesel engines and fuel systems poses a serious concern. This research endeavors to assess the corrosion characteristics of materials commonly found in automotive fuel systems when exposed to various blends of rapeseed oil biodiesel and diesel. The study involved static immersion tests, lasting 3360 h at room temperature, using B0, B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100 fuels. Copper, brass, aluminum, zinc, and stainless steel plate samples were subjected to these tests. The evaluation at the conclusion of the study included weight loss measurements, corrosion rate calculations, and observation of changes in the exposed metal surfaces. Surface morphology was scrutinized using a Bresser LCD MICRO 5MP digital microscope. Additionally, the total acid number (TAN) was employed to assess alterations in fuel acidity before and after the immersion tests. Full article
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16 pages, 3710 KiB  
Article
Effect of Firewood Moisture Content on Quality, Yield, and Economic Gain during Charcoal Production in a Modified Half-Orange Kiln
by Juan García-Quezada, Ricardo Musule-Lagunes, Christian Wehenkel, José Angel Prieto-Ruíz, Víctor Núñez-Retana and Artemio Carrillo-Parra
Fuels 2024, 5(1), 1-16; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fuels5010001 - 25 Dec 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1246
Abstract
Tropical firewood species are of foremost importance for charcoal production worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the moisture content of tropical fuelwood on charcoal production in modified Argentinean half-orange kilns in terms of yield, quality, and economic [...] Read more.
Tropical firewood species are of foremost importance for charcoal production worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the moisture content of tropical fuelwood on charcoal production in modified Argentinean half-orange kilns in terms of yield, quality, and economic viability. Ten tropical species from the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, were selected for charcoal production. The data were analyzed using a completely randomized design. The moisture content of the firewood was 48.99–79.31%. Temperatures close to 500 °C were obtained in the three kilns, as well as production yields of 28% with a consumption of 6.4 m3 of firewood and 38% with a consumption of 4.5–5 m3. Charcoal moisture values of less than 8%, volatile material of 20–30%, ash < 8%, fixed carbon of 60–70%, and higher heating values of 28–30 MJ kg−1 were obtained. Burn I obtained the highest energy yield of 54%, with a production of 20.87 MWh of charcoal recovered. The production cost of the kiln for the producer is USD 0.00825 (MXN 0.16) per MJ. Full article
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