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Surgeries, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2021) – 11 articles

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Systematic Review
Punch Incision versus Elliptical Excision for Epidermal Inclusion Cysts: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 335-346; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030033 - 15 Sep 2021
Viewed by 558
Abstract
Punch incision is an alternative to elliptical excision for treating epidermal inclusion cysts, but its efficacy has not been systematically reviewed. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of punch incision versus elliptical excision for epidermal inclusion cysts. Randomized controlled trials published through [...] Read more.
Punch incision is an alternative to elliptical excision for treating epidermal inclusion cysts, but its efficacy has not been systematically reviewed. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of punch incision versus elliptical excision for epidermal inclusion cysts. Randomized controlled trials published through January 2021 that evaluated the performance of punch incision versus elliptical excision on epidermal inclusion cysts were identified through electronic databases and clinical registries. Version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials tool was used. Review Manager software was used for the meta-analysis. Two trials (100 participants) were identified. The primary outcomes were recurrence rate (risk ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37–15.60 [favoring elliptical excision]), mean operative time (mean difference [MD], −5.28; 95% CI, −12.72 to 2.16 [favoring punch incision]), and mean postoperative wound length (MD, −11.67; 95% CI, −20.59 to −2.76 [favoring punch incision]). The evidence was low to moderate due to the small sample size and its considerable heterogeneity. The use of punch incision shortened the mean postoperative wound length and had comparable safety to that of elliptical excision. Full article
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Review
Compression Neuropathies of the Upper Extremity: A Review
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 320-334; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030032 - 02 Sep 2021
Viewed by 342
Abstract
Compressive neuropathies of the forearm are common and involve structures innervated by the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. A thorough patient history, occupational history, and physical examination can aid diagnosis. Electromyography, X-ray, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging may prove useful in select syndromes. Generally, [...] Read more.
Compressive neuropathies of the forearm are common and involve structures innervated by the median, ulnar, and radial nerves. A thorough patient history, occupational history, and physical examination can aid diagnosis. Electromyography, X-ray, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging may prove useful in select syndromes. Generally, first line therapy of all compressive neuropathies consists of activity modification, rest, splinting, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Many patients experience improvement with conservative measures. For those lacking adequate response, steroid injections may improve symptoms. Surgical release is the last line therapy and has varied outcomes depending on the compression. Carpal Tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common, followed by ulnar tunnel syndrome. Open and endoscopic CTS release appear to have similar outcomes. Endoscopic release appears to incur decreased cost baring a low rate of complications, although this is debated in the literature. Additional syndromes of median nerve compression include pronator syndrome (PS), anterior interosseous syndrome, and ligament of Struthers syndrome. Ulnar nerve compressive neuropathies include cubital tunnel syndrome and Guyon’s canal. Radial nerve compressive neuropathies include radial tunnel syndrome and Wartenberg’s syndrome. The goal of this review is to provide all clinicians with guidance on diagnosis and treatment of commonly encountered compressive neuropathies of the forearm. Full article
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Article
Using of Intraoperative Cell Salvage and Tranexamic Acid as Protective Factor for Postoperative Anemia Appearance in Patients with Total Hip or Knee Arthroplasty
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 308-319; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030031 - 16 Aug 2021
Viewed by 460
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate intraoperative pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods and techniques in reducing blood loss in patients following total hip or knee arthroplasty. (2) Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in patients undergoing TKA or THA [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate intraoperative pharmacological and nonpharmacological methods and techniques in reducing blood loss in patients following total hip or knee arthroplasty. (2) Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in patients undergoing TKA or THA surgery, electively performed at the General Hospital Valjevo, Valjevo, Serbia, in 2014 when the principles of patient blood management (PBM) were not applied at all or in part, and in 2019 when PBM principles were applied as standard. (3) Results: This study includes 197 patients, of whom 83.8% developed postoperative anemia (PA defined by haemoglobin < 12 g/dL in both sexes). Using multivariate logistic regression and ROC curve analysis, it was shown that the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) with intraoperative cell salvage (ICS) in patients without preoperative anemia reduced the incidence of PA (odds ratio = 0.081). (4) Conclusions: Preoperative diagnosis and treatment of anemia are necessary in orthopedic patients since the use of TXA with ICS strongly reduces PA in patients without preoperative anemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perioperative Patient Blood Management)
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Article
Surgical Approach for Spinal Tumors: Our Experience in Combined Military Hospital Dhaka
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 303-307; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030030 - 12 Aug 2021
Viewed by 387
Abstract
(1) Background: spinal tumors not only causes structural problem but also it affects body functionality, too. Surgery has a key role in management of patients with spinal tumor. The aim of this study is that to observe their clinical profile, functional outcomes and [...] Read more.
(1) Background: spinal tumors not only causes structural problem but also it affects body functionality, too. Surgery has a key role in management of patients with spinal tumor. The aim of this study is that to observe their clinical profile, functional outcomes and prognostic factors. (2) Methods: 20 retrospectively consecutive patients with spinal tumors operated over a period of 2 years were analyzed. (3) Results: nine (45%) were intradural and 11(55%) were extradural. Mean age at surgery was 45.05 years (range 20–80 years). The common clinical features were pain, limb weakness and autonomic involvement. Schwannoma was common in intradural extramedullary group whereas astrocytoma and ependymoma was common in intramedullary group. In this case, 16 (80%) patients had improvement following surgery and 4 (20%) remained the same, none had deterioration. Common complications were persistent pain (1 case) and autonomic involvement (1 case). (4) Conclusion: spinal tumors need early exploration and excision and usually patients recover well without any residual effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surgeries for Cervical Spine and Spinal Cord Trauma)
Article
Identifying Consensus and Open Questions around Assessing or Predicting the Quality and Success of Cartilage Repair: A Delphi Study
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 286-302; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030029 - 06 Aug 2021
Viewed by 427
Abstract
A range of surgical techniques have been developed for the repair or regeneration of lesioned cartilage in the human knee and a corresponding array of scoring systems have been created to assess their outcomes. The published literature displays a wide range of opinions [...] Read more.
A range of surgical techniques have been developed for the repair or regeneration of lesioned cartilage in the human knee and a corresponding array of scoring systems have been created to assess their outcomes. The published literature displays a wide range of opinions regarding the factors that influence the success of surgical cartilage repair and which parameters are the most useful for measuring the quality of the repair at follow-up. Our objective was to provide some clarity to the field by collating items that were agreed upon by a panel of experts to be important in these areas. A modified, three-round Delphi consensus study was carried out consisting of one idea-generating focus-group and two subsequent, self-completed questionnaire rounds. In each round, items were assessed for their importance and level of consensus against pre-determined threshold levels. In total, 31 items reached consensus, including a hierarchy of tissues in the joint based on their importance in cartilage repair, markers of repair cartilage quality and the implications of environmental and patient-related factors. Items were stratified into those that can be employed for predicting the success of cartilage repair and those that could be used for assessing the structural quality of the resulting repair cartilage. Items that did not reach consensus represent areas where dissent remains and could, therefore, be used to guide future clinical and fundamental scientific research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Approaches to Tissue Engineering for Musculoskeletal Repair)
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Article
Analgesic Efficacy of Quadratus Lumborum Block in Infants Undergoing Pyeloplasty
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 278-285; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030028 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Post-operative analgesic management is challenging in infants and opioids have been the standard of care. However, they are associated with adverse effects which may negatively impact infants. In this retrospective cohort study, we sought to explore the postoperative analgesic efficacy of quadratus lumborum [...] Read more.
Post-operative analgesic management is challenging in infants and opioids have been the standard of care. However, they are associated with adverse effects which may negatively impact infants. In this retrospective cohort study, we sought to explore the postoperative analgesic efficacy of quadratus lumborum (QL) block in the infant population undergoing dorsal lumbotomy pyeloplasty. Chart review of 34 infants (≤12 months) who underwent dorsal lumbotomy pyeloplasty between 2016–2020 was performed. Post-operative pain was assessed using externally validated pain scales (CRIES & FLACC) and monitored hemodynamics (pulse and blood pressure). Opioid doses were standardized by using morphine milligram equivalency (MME). The Prescription Database Monitoring Program (PDMP) was utilized to determine if discharge opioid prescriptions were filled. Of 34 patients, 13 received the QL block. Mean age at the time of surgery was 6.2 months ± 3.2 months. The QL group received 0.8 MME postoperatively, whereas the non-QL group received 0.9 MME (p = 0.82). The QL group (20%) filled their discharge opioid prescription less frequently compared to non-QL group (100%) (p = 0.002). There were no observed differences between pain scale or hemodynamic variables. Further studies are warranted to explore QL block’s efficacy for post-operative infant pain management. Full article
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Review
Clinical Impact of Preoperative Anemia in Patients Undergoing Peripheral Vascular Interventions: A Systematic Review
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 268-277; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030027 - 02 Aug 2021
Viewed by 473
Abstract
Introduction: This systematic review aims to summarize the existing evidence relating to preoperative anemia and clinical outcomes in peripheral vascular surgery patients. Methods: The following databases were searched—PubMed, COCHRANE, LILACS, and Science Research—from 1 January 2010 up to 8 May 2020, with the [...] Read more.
Introduction: This systematic review aims to summarize the existing evidence relating to preoperative anemia and clinical outcomes in peripheral vascular surgery patients. Methods: The following databases were searched—PubMed, COCHRANE, LILACS, and Science Research—from 1 January 2010 up to 8 May 2020, with the last search performed on 1 January 2021. An additional manual search for potential primary studies was conducted on major journals (e.g., Anesthesiology, the British Journal of Anesthesia and the European Journal of Anaesthesiology) and reference lists of included studies. Google Scholar was also checked for additional eligible studies. Reviewers independently screened potentially eligible articles and extracted data from included studies on populations, interventions, comparisons, and outcomes. This review was registered at PROSPERO as CRD 180954. Results: In total, 6 observational studies with a combined total of 87,327 participants were analyzed. Data collected in this review suggest that preoperative anemia, especially when hemoglobin is <10 g/dL, is associated with an increased risk of red blood cell transfusions (OR: 7.5; 95% CI 6.3–8.9, p < 0.0001), limb amputation (OR: 5.2; 95% CI 3.1–8.6, p < 0.0001), and death (p < 0.0031). Conclusions: These data suggest an association between preoperative anemia, blood transfusion requirements, and other adverse clinical outcomes among patients subjected to peripheral vascular interventions. However, further investigations, particularly randomized controlled trials, are warranted to better understand the association between preoperative anemia and patients’ prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perioperative Patient Blood Management)
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Article
Could Negative Tc-99m-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) Scintigraphy Obviate the Need for Surgery for Bethesda III and IV Thyroid Nodules?
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 260-267; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030026 - 24 Jul 2021
Viewed by 385
Abstract
In about 20% of all cases, the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results are equivocal, delivering the two common categories of indeterminate cytology, Bethesda III and IV. The observed rates of malignancy vary widely among institutions, with the urgent need for a more [...] Read more.
In about 20% of all cases, the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) results are equivocal, delivering the two common categories of indeterminate cytology, Bethesda III and IV. The observed rates of malignancy vary widely among institutions, with the urgent need for a more precise risk stratification. 99mcTc methoxyisobutylisonitrile scintigraphy (MIBI) is less expensive than molecular testing and has been shown to have a high negative predictive value. For this reason, the results of MIBI scintigraphy in adult patients with indeterminate FNAC were collected, and correlated with the final pathology reports of surgical specimens. Patients receiving FNAC, MIBI scintigraphy and surgery for sonographic suspicious hypofunctional thyroid nodules between 2015 and 2019 at the University Hospital of Cologne, Germany were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive value of MIBI scintigraphy were calculated. Seventy-eight patients with sonographic suspicious hypofunctional thyroid nodules underwent surgery after interdisciplinary case discussion of both FNAC and MIBI results. In 49 (62.5%) cases, FNAC consisted of Bethesda III and IV results. In 39 (79.6%) of these cases, MIBI scintigraphy resulted in mismatch and intermediary results, but in only 4 (10.2%) of these cases was a carcinoma diagnosed. The negative predictive value of MIBI scintigraphy was 90–100%, respectively. Relying on the negative predictive value of MIBI match results might have obviated the need for surgery in 20.4% cases; one papillary microcarcinoma, however, would have been missed. MIBI scintigraphy has an underused potential for improving the diagnostic precision of hypofunctional thyroid nodules. Full article
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Review
3D Printing for Medical Applications: Current State of the Art and Perspectives during the COVID-19 Crisis
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 244-259; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030025 - 23 Jul 2021
Viewed by 1258
Abstract
The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected over one hundred million people worldwide and has resulted in over two million deaths. In addition to the toll that coronavirus takes on the health of humans infected with the virus and the potential long term effects [...] Read more.
The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected over one hundred million people worldwide and has resulted in over two million deaths. In addition to the toll that coronavirus takes on the health of humans infected with the virus and the potential long term effects of infection, the repercussions of the pandemic on the economy as well as on the healthcare system have been enormous. The global supply of equipment necessary for dealing with the pandemic experienced extreme stress as healthcare systems around the world attempted to acquire personal protective equipment for their workers and medical devices for treating COVID-19. This review describes how 3D printing is currently being used in life saving surgeries such as heart and lung surgery and how 3D printing can address some of the worldwide shortage of personal protective equipment, by examining recent trends of the use of 3D printing and how these technologies can be applied during and after the pandemic. We review the use of 3D printed models for treating the long term effects of COVID-19. We then focus on methods for generating face shields and different types of respirators. We conclude with areas for future investigation and application of 3D printing technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing in Surgical Strategies)
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Brief Report
Conservative Treatment in Tracheobronchial Injuries—An Institutional Report
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 237-243; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030024 - 01 Jul 2021
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Tracheobronchial injuries are rare but potentially high-impact events with significant morbidity and mortality. Common etiologies include blunt or penetrating trauma, often combined with various complex injuries, while iatrogenic injury usually occurs during operation, intubation, or bronchoscopy. An early and accurate diagnosis and a [...] Read more.
Tracheobronchial injuries are rare but potentially high-impact events with significant morbidity and mortality. Common etiologies include blunt or penetrating trauma, often combined with various complex injuries, while iatrogenic injury usually occurs during operation, intubation, or bronchoscopy. An early and accurate diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach in a center experienced in treating airway lesions are essential to obtain favorable results. For a long time, surgery has been considered the treatment of choice for post-traumatic airway lesions. However, recent reports have shown a paradigm shift in the management of tracheal injury towards a conservative approach, especially in treating iatrogenic lesions. In our experience of 11 consecutive patients, although there are still definitive indications for surgery, we demonstrated the effectiveness of conservative treatment in patients with mixed varieties of tracheal injury by etiology, extension, and complications. Full article
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Case Report
[18F]-FDG PET/CT of the Pulmonary Benign Metastasizing Leiomyoma in a Breast Cancer Patient: A Case Report
Surgeries 2021, 2(3), 231-236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/surgeries2030023 - 28 Jun 2021
Viewed by 450
Abstract
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a useful functional image technique to evaluate the disease extent in many cancers, as well as differentiate benign disease from malignant metastasis. We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with breast cancer and suspected [...] Read more.
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a useful functional image technique to evaluate the disease extent in many cancers, as well as differentiate benign disease from malignant metastasis. We report the case of a 49-year-old woman with breast cancer and suspected lung metastasis by conventional images. After FDG-PET/CT demonstrating faint, or even no FDG uptake in bilateral pulmonary nodules, accompanied with obvious uterine fibroids, benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) of the lung was included in a differential diagnosis and finally confirmed by surgical pathology. FDG PET/CT showed its value in the diagnosis of BML in the breast cancer patient who was misleading as lung metastasis during outpatient follow-up. Full article
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