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Review

Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency on COVID-19 Status: A Systematic Review

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Department of Statistics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
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Department of Public Health, North South University, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
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School of Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia
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Neurocognition and Action-Biomechanics-Research Group, Faculty of Psychology and Sport Sciences, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld, Germany
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Department of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast PMB TF 0494, Ghana
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Social Policy Research Centre, Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
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Department of Population and Health, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast PMB TF 0494, Ghana
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College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Aquaro
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 27 June 2021 / Accepted: 2 July 2021 / Published: 7 July 2021
One major micronutrient studied for its possible protective effect against the COVID-19 disease is vitamin D. This systematic review sought to identify and synthesize available evidence to aid the understanding of the possible effect of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 status and health outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Three databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar) were systematically used to obtain English language journal articles published between 1 December 2019 and 3 November 2020. The search consisted of the terms (“Vitamin D,” OR “25-Hydroxyvitamin D,” OR “Low vitamin D.”) AND (“COVID-19” OR “2019-nCoV” OR “Coronavirus” OR “SARS-CoV-2”) AND (“disease severity” OR “IMV” OR “ICU admission” OR “mortality” OR “hospitalization” OR “infection”). We followed the recommended PRISMA guidelines in executing this study. After going through the screening of the articles, eleven articles were included in the review. All the included studies reported a positive association between vitamin D sufficiency and improved COVID-19 disease outcomes. On the other hand, vitamin D deficiency was associated with poor COVID-19 disease outcomes. Specifically, two studies found that vitamin D-deficient patients were more likely to die from COVID-19 compared to vitamin D-sufficient patients. Three studies showed that vitamin D-deficient people were more likely to develop severe COVID-19 disease compared to vitamin D-sufficient people. Furthermore, six studies found that vitamin D-deficient people were more likely to be COVID-19 infected compared to vitamin D-sufficient people. Findings from these studies suggest that vitamin D may serve as a mitigating effect for COVID-19 infection, severity, and mortality. The current evidence supports the recommendations for people to eat foods rich in vitamin D such as fish, red meat, liver, and egg yolks. The evidence also supports the provision of vitamin D supplements to individuals with COVID-19 disease and those at risk of COVID-19 infection in order to boost their immunity and improve health outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; SARS-CoV-2 virus; vitamin D COVID-19; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; SARS-CoV-2 virus; vitamin D
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MDPI and ACS Style

Das, P.; Samad, N.; Ahinkorah, B.O.; Hagan, J.E., Jr.; Peprah, P.; Mohammed, A.; Seidu, A.-A. Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency on COVID-19 Status: A Systematic Review. COVID 2021, 1, 97-104. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/covid1010008

AMA Style

Das P, Samad N, Ahinkorah BO, Hagan JE Jr., Peprah P, Mohammed A, Seidu A-A. Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency on COVID-19 Status: A Systematic Review. COVID. 2021; 1(1):97-104. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/covid1010008

Chicago/Turabian Style

Das, Pranta, Nandeeta Samad, Bright O. Ahinkorah, John E. Hagan Jr., Prince Peprah, Aliu Mohammed, and Abdul-Aziz Seidu. 2021. "Effect of Vitamin D Deficiency on COVID-19 Status: A Systematic Review" COVID 1, no. 1: 97-104. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/covid1010008

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