Oceans 2021, 2(1), 246-265; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2010015 (registering DOI) - 05 Mar 2021
We carried out a rock magnetic study of two deep-sea gravity cores from the Demerara Rise, NE South America. Our previous studies provided radiocarbon and paleomagnetic chronologies for these cores. This study presents detailed rock magnetic measurements on these cores in order to [...] Read more.
We carried out a rock magnetic study of two deep-sea gravity cores from the Demerara Rise, NE South America. Our previous studies provided radiocarbon and paleomagnetic chronologies for these cores. This study presents detailed rock magnetic measurements on these cores in order to characterize the rock magnetic mineralogy and grain size as indicators of the overall clastic fraction. We measured the magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanence, and isothermal remanence and demagnetized the remanences at several alternating field demagnetization levels. The magnetic intensities estimate the magnetic material concentration (and indirectly the overall clastic fraction) in the cores. Ratios of rock magnetic parameters indicate the relative grain size of the magnetic material (and indirectly the overall clastic grain size). Rock magnetic intensity parameters and rock magnetic ratios both vary systematically and synchronously over the last 30,000 years in both cores. There is a multi-millennial-scale cyclicity, with intervals of high magnetic intensity (high magnetic and clastic content) with low magnetic ratios (coarser magnetic and clastic grain size), alternating in sequence with intervals of low magnetic intensity with high magnetic ratios (finer grain size). There is also a higher-frequency millennial-scale variability in intensity superposed on the multi-millennial-scale variability. There are nine (A–I) multi-millennial-scale intervals in the cores. Intervals A, C, E, G, and I have high magnetic and clastic content with coarser overall magnetic and clastic grain size and are likely intervals of enhanced rainfall and runoff from the NE South American margin to the coastal ocean. In contrast, intervals B, D, F, and H have lower clastic flux with finer overall grain size, probably indicating lower continental rainfall and runoff. During the Holocene, high rainfall and runoff intervals can be related to cooler times and low rainfall and runoff to warmer times. The opposite pattern existed during the Pleistocene, with higher rainfall and runoff during interstadial conditions and lower rainfall and runoff during stadial conditions. We noted a similar pattern of Pleistocene multi-millennial-scale variability in a transect of deep-sea sediment cores along the NE Brazilian margin, from the Cariaco Basin (~10 N) to the NE Brazilian margin (~1° N–4° S). However the NW part of this transect (Cariaco Basin, Demerara Rise, Amazon Fan) has an out-of-phase relationship with the SE part of the transect (NE Brazilian margin) between warm–cold and wet–dry conditions. One possible cause of the high–low rainfall and runoff patterns might be oscillation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), with higher rainfall and runoff associated with a more southerly average position of the ITCZ and lower rainfall and runoff associated with a more northerly average position of the ITCZ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Advances and Challenges in Ocean Science—Feature Papers for the Founding of Oceans)►▼ Show Figures