Special Issue "Physiological Responses and Adaptations in Resistance Exercise"

A special issue of Sports (ISSN 2075-4663).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Ilias Smilios
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Guest Editor
Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Democritus University of Thrace, Komotini, Greece
Interests: resistance and endurance exercise physiology; training methods; exercise testing

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Resistance exercise is one of the most frequently used forms of training, with a great impact on human physiology. Resistance exercise causes acute adjustments on neural, muscular, cardiovascular, hormonal, and other systems’ function in order to cope with exercise stress. Over time, the repetitive resistance exercise stimulus causes chronic physiological adaptations in neuromuscular and other systems’ function and morphology, which leads to increased athletic performance and an improvement of the health status and the functional ability of the population. All these adaptations may depend on the dose of the resistance training provided and the configuration of program variables (i.e., load, number of sets and repetitions, rest duration, execution velocity, and training frequency) as well as the long-term training planning.

Despite the advancement of our knowledge in the last few decades regarding resistance exercise physiology, the quest for its understanding under various short- and long-term loading conditions still goes on. Therefore, in this Special Issue, ‘Physiological Responses and Adapations in Resistance Exercise’, we invite researchers to contribute with original research articles and metanalysis or systematic review articles that will further expand our knowledge about the acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on human biology. These, for example, may involve studies: i) Investigating the acute or chronic effects of different resistance training protocols on physiological responses and adaptations, ii) examining fatigue mechanisms during resistance exercise, and iii) exploring training methods to enhance neuromuscular function and performance. All of the above could be examined in athletic, fitness enthusiasts and diseased populations.

I look forward to receiving your contribution.

Dr. Ilias Smilios
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sports is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physiology
  • adaptation
  • fatigue
  • resistance training
  • strength training
  • neural function
  • muscle hypertrophy
  • neuromuscular adaptation
  • muscle power
  • health
  • performance

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Article
Muscle Activation in Traditional and Experimental Barbell Bench Press Exercise: A Potential New Tool for Fitness Maintenance
Sports 2019, 7(10), 224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports7100224 - 17 Oct 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2765
Abstract
Background: The bench press exercise (BP) is commonly practiced in both recreational and professional training. The weight is lowered from a position where the elbows are at a 90° angle at the start and <90° at the end of eccentric phase, and then [...] Read more.
Background: The bench press exercise (BP) is commonly practiced in both recreational and professional training. The weight is lowered from a position where the elbows are at a 90° angle at the start and <90° at the end of eccentric phase, and then returned to the elbows extended position. In order to focus the exercise more on the triceps brachii (TB) rather than the pectoralis major (PM), the inter-handle distance (IHD) is decreased diminishing the involvement of the PM in favor of the TB. Purpose: To improve performance of the exercise by reducing force dissociation and transmitting 100% of the external load to the muscle tissue we propose a prototype of the barbell with a bar on which two sleeves are capable of sliding. The dynamic modifications of the IHD keep the elbow flexion angle constant at 90°. Results: Analysis of the inter-handle distance (IHD) signals of the upper body muscles showed a marked increase in muscle activity using the experimental barbell for the PM (19.5%) and for the biceps brachii (173%). Conclusions: The experimental barbell increased the muscle activity typical of the bench press exercise, obtaining the same training induction with a lower load and consequently preventing articular stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses and Adaptations in Resistance Exercise)
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Article
A Comparison of Machine versus Free-Weight Squats for the Enhancement of Lower-Body Power, Speed, and Change-of-Direction Ability during an Initial Training Phase of Recreationally-Active Women
Sports 2019, 7(10), 215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports7100215 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3350
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine differences between a free-weight squat (FWS) and machine squat (MS) during an initial resistance training phase for augmentation of performance tests in recreationally active women. Twenty-seven women (22.7 ± 3.5 years) were block-randomized to three [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine differences between a free-weight squat (FWS) and machine squat (MS) during an initial resistance training phase for augmentation of performance tests in recreationally active women. Twenty-seven women (22.7 ± 3.5 years) were block-randomized to three groups: FWS, MS, or control (CON) and completed pre- and post-testing sessions consisting of the squat one-repetition maximum (1-RM), vertical jump, pro-agility test, zig-zag change-of-direction (COD) test, and 30-meter sprint. Participants trained two sessions per week for six weeks by performing jumping, sprinting, and COD drills followed by FWS, MS, or no squats (CON). Peak jump power increased for CON (p = 0.03) and MS (p < 0.01) groups. Change in peak jump power was greater for the MS group compared with the FWS group (p = 0.05). Average jump power increased for the MS group (p < 0.01). Change in average jump power was greater for the MS group compared with the CON group (p = 0.04). Vertical jump height, pro-agility, 30-meter sprint, and zig-zag COD tests improved over time (p < 0.01), with no difference between groups (p > 0.05). Machine squat training maximized jumping power compared with FWS training and CON. Both resistance training groups and the CON group improved equally in the pro-agility, 30-meter sprint, and zig-zag COD tests. Machine squat training may provide performance-enhancing benefits of equal or superior value to those obtained with free-weight squat training in recreationally active women during an initial training mesocycle. These findings also stress the importance of task-specific training in this population of untrained women, as the control group improved in terms of performance to the same degree as both resistance training groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses and Adaptations in Resistance Exercise)
Article
Effect of Plyometric Training on Jumping, Sprinting and Change of Direction Speed in Child Female Athletes
Sports 2019, 7(5), 116; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports7050116 - 17 May 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2614
Abstract
Background: This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of plyometric training on jumping, sprinting, and change of direction (COD) performance. Methods: Fifty female 7–9-year-old gymnasts were randomly assigned to a plyometric training group (PG; n = 33), that performed supplementary plyometric training [...] Read more.
Background: This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of plyometric training on jumping, sprinting, and change of direction (COD) performance. Methods: Fifty female 7–9-year-old gymnasts were randomly assigned to a plyometric training group (PG; n = 33), that performed supplementary plyometric training twice per week, and a control group (CG; n = 17) that continued regular training. The following tests were performed before and after the intervention: 10 and 20 m sprints, 5 + 5 m and 10 + 10 m COD tests, one-leg and two-leg countermovement jump (CMJ), drop jump (DJ), squat jump (SJ), and standing long jump (SLJ). Results: Only a main effect for time was found for all jumping performance parameters (p = 0.001). However, the improvement of one- and two-leg CMJ in PG had a greater effect size than CG (0.72 and 0.67 vs. 0.34 and 0.18, respectively). Group × time interactions were found for 10 and 20 m sprint tests (p = 0.018 and p = 0.011, respectively) and for 10 + 10 m COD (p = 0.008) with the post hoc test showing improvement only for the PG (p = 0.001, 0.001, and 0.003 and d = 1.1, 1.14, and 0.6, respectively). Conclusions: Supplementary plyometric training increased sprint and COD performance more than regular gymnastics training, while jumping performance was equally improved in both groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses and Adaptations in Resistance Exercise)

Review

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Review
Are Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Stress Greater in Isometric or in Dynamic Resistance Exercise?
Sports 2020, 8(4), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/sports8040041 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2496
Abstract
Medical and sports medicine associations are reluctant to endorse isometric exercise to the same extent as dynamic resistance exercise (RE). The major concern is the fear of greater increases in blood pressure (BP) that might be associated with isometric exercise. This review comprehensively [...] Read more.
Medical and sports medicine associations are reluctant to endorse isometric exercise to the same extent as dynamic resistance exercise (RE). The major concern is the fear of greater increases in blood pressure (BP) that might be associated with isometric exercise. This review comprehensively presents all human studies that directly compared the magnitude of hemodynamic responses between isometric and dynamic RE. We also discuss possible mechanisms controlling BP-response and cardiovascular adjustments during both types of RE. The most prominent finding was that isometric and dynamic RE using small-muscle mass evoke equal increases in BP; however, the circulatory adjustments contributing to this response are different in dynamic and isometric RE. In contrast, studies using large-muscle mass report inconsistent results for the magnitude of BP-response between the two types of RE. Thus, when the same muscles and workloads are used, the increase in BP during isometric and dynamic RE is more comparable to what is commonly believed. However, it should be noted that only a few studies equalized the workload in two types of RE, most used small sample sizes, and all studies employed healthy participants. More studies are needed to compare the cardiovascular risks associated with isometric and dynamic RE, especially in individuals with chronic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physiological Responses and Adaptations in Resistance Exercise)
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